Media and the Digital Divide

MDIA 4011, Scripps College of Communication, Ohio University

Week 7 – Public Access, Citizenship, and Digital Government

Transforming Business: A Chinese Online Entrepreneur’s Story: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlUtjp0JtfQ

This week’s readings are:

  1. DeMaagd, K., Chew, H. E., Huang, G., Khan, M. L., Sreenivasan, A., & LaRose, R. (2013). The use of public computing facilities by library patrons: Demography, motivations, and barriers. Government Information Quarterly, 30(1), 110-118.
  2. Basu, S. (2016). Digital Divide, Digital Ethics, and E-government. In ICTs in Developing Countries (pp. 161-169). Palgrave Macmillan UK.

You will be answering the following questions:

Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

Responses to these questions are due by 9:00 pm, Thursday.

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29 comments on “Week 7 – Public Access, Citizenship, and Digital Government

  1. Bailey Castillo says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries are an important aspects of bridging the digital divide. The text states, “they are also responsible for the dissemination of online, and offline information” (p. 160). Public libraries provide internet and computer access to individuals that may not have the privilege of these resources regularly. Public libraries bridge that gap by providing individuals, regardless of their wealth or status, equal technological resources.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    The government should be investing in public libraries because of the positive outcomes that develop as a result of their existence. The text exemplifies this idea by stating “public computing facilities in libraries bridge a critical gap between those who have internet access and those who lack it” (p. 160). There is an “increasing need for public computing facilities” (p. 160), yet not a significant difference in funding. By investing in public libraries, governments are giving technological access to many who don’t normally have that connection. This helps the technological productivity and skill level of many individuals.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    This excerpt from the text states that e-government wouldn’t be possible if the government did not take an active role in providing this e-government with proper regulations and rules that give this outlet legitimacy. The text states that “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework” (p. 165). In other words, anything can be determined through e-government, but without the proper paperwork and legal support, the decisions are rendered useless. The text also states, “legitimacy also raises the question on the standards of appropriateness – what kind of qualities should e-government action have or what standards should it meet in order to achieve the desired level of legitimacy” (p. 165). This supports the idea that e-government process is reliant amongst proper legal framework. That legal framework sets up e-government so that there are regulations and rules that support this outlet as legitimate.

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    1. Michael Mack says:

      I agree when you said that public libraries bridge the gap in terms of free internet use. I go back to when I was 8 years old and it was my very first time actually using a computer and having the librarians teach you , and show you the cool things that comes along with it.

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  2. Emma Schoonmaker says:

    Study 1:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries play an important role in the development of communities now more than ever. Access to a public library also means access to public computers. For people who may not have access to technology for socioeconomic reasons or other, public library computers help to bridge the information gap and enables citizens to educate themselves on their own time. Furthermore, public libraries create a shared space in a community. Whether one is young or old, rich or poor, man or woman, or from a rural or urban area, the library gives these people a place to level the playing field in terms of digital knowledge and exploration.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries?

    Yes, governments should be investing in public libraries. The digital divide will only grow larger, and supplying all public libraries with access to computers and other technology will make one large step toward closing the divide in our country. Additionally, “demand for public access computers increased year-over-year in 70% of libraries and nearly two-thirds of library outlets are the only source of free Internet access in their communities,” (DeMaagd et al., p. 1). The need for public Internet access is only going to keep increasing in our ever-changing, technology-focused world. Fortunately, most of the country’s libraries are already actively participating in the closure of the digital divide, but government spending will give this initiative the push that it needs to make a difference.

    Study 2:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    To me, this quote means that every country is different in terms of how much access they have to technology. The laws that are built around said access help to ensure the safety and privacy of each individual who is using it. With that said, this quote is pointing out that it is necessary to have laws in place in any form of government as they relate to technology and how people use it. For example, the United States and the National Security Association have regulations in place for everyone who uses technology, especially those brilliant minds who are working directly with the FBI and these associations to develop our technology. One of these minds is Edward Snowden, a whistleblower who pointed out the flaws in our legal framework for our operation, or lack thereof.

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  3. Kara Dierkes says:

    Study 1:
    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    The Demaagd reading states that public libraries “serve an important role in bridging the nation’s digital divide between the haves and the have-nots of internet facilities” (pg. 111). They serve this role because they can offer computers for public use to people that may not always have internet access.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Governments should be investing in public libraries because if all the services they offer. Public access computers in libraries are frequently used by patrons who rely on them most to search for jobs and to access government services online (pg. 117). If the government is going to require internet to access some of its services, then they should supply for the libraries.

    Study 2:
    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples

    This statement means that e-government would not work without the support of the government. The reading states that in some settings, the legitimacy of government action would affect the enforceability of the action, either on the part of the government against a person subject to that government’s rule or on the part of a private citizen against the government. This means that legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework. This framework should be capable of identify- ing and addressing legal obstacles to e-government. Legal obstacles may include the differences that exist between traditional data collection requirements like sharing of information collected by and provided to various government agencies and the ease of electronically collecting and sharing data. (pg. 165)

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    1. Robert Dotson says:

      Kara,

      I totally agree with you about how the government should pay for the funding for these public libraries. If they require access for things like thee internet they should pay for it or give a big discount for it.

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  4. Jarad says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Libraries play a pivotal role in the development of a local community. While many people have access to computers from home there are many that do not and access to a computer via a public library is a cheap and easy way for someone to stay connected online. They can progress their lives both personally and professionally with cheap unlimited access of the internet. ” the libraries’ resources were predominantly used by
    the members of the local community as opposed to supporting visitors;
    thus placing greater importance of local community development via
    the use of the library” (Demaagd et al, p. 113).

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    I personally believe that governments should be investing in libraries because it creates an opportunity for lower income citizens to better themselves with the modern advances in technology that normally wouldn’t be afforded to them. The internet is becoming more and more of a necessity everyday and the other resources that libraries offer create opportunities for growth. From staying current on events and conducting research, to printing resumes and applying for jobs there are much less limiting factors at the library than the less fortunates home.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    “the legitimacy of government action would affect the enforceability of the action, either on the part of the government against a person subject to that government’s rule or on the part of a private citizen against the government” (Basu, p. 165). With this statement we need to understand what e-government is and it is summed up as as “an alternative and complementary approach to government administration and service delivery as well as a means to rede-fine the way it interacts with citizens and the private sector” (Basu, p. 164). Therefore in a nutshell without proper legal framework there is no legitimacy in regards to administration and services offered and when that happens the government loses its credibility and authority.

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  5. Krysti Finney says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries aid in giving those who can’t afford internet or have access at home the opportunity to utilize many of its great features. Thus, bringing the community together by building a stronger connection between individuals.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    I believe that the government should invest in public libraries because it would be investing in bettering society as a whole. It can give people the opportunity to education, resources, to have access to the internet for jobs, it can provide jobs for the community, and it can be a meeting place for support groups. DeMaagd et al., finds, “That public computing facilities are indeed helping to meet the needs of marginalized citizens and the BTOP-funded improvements of these facilities are likely to help narrow the digital divides among demographic groups in this respect (page 117).” Why must we insist on investing in casino’s and materialistic items when the need is to invest in our future, kids who need more opportunities for education.

    Study 2 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    I believe this means that unless the government can provide the proper structure the success of the e-government will not work. According to Basu, “However e-government readiness strategies and programmes will be effective only if, at the very minimum, all have functional literacy and education, which includes knowledge and having access to a computer and the Internet (page 164).” Basu also argues that in order for the e-government to succeed it would have to not only provide guidelines but also information that is available to everyone. It will be interesting to see how the internet will be governed in the future and how much freedom will still be available.

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  6. Kaitlyn Shive says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:
    a)What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    -Public Libraries definitely play an important role in the development of a community. It says in the text “Libraries have been found to be particularly important for people who are unable to gain access to the Internet in their homes or at other locations” They are a way of helping those who are not as privileged as others. The text also states “Libraries serve an important role in bridging the nation’s digital divide between the haves and the have-nots of Internet facilities.” They play a role of a mediator for those who do not have access in their homes to Internet or technology; they allow those who don’t do become part of the developing digital world.

    b)Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    -Governments should be investing in public libraries because investing in them would create a significant increase in the development of the community. The government would be helping those who do not have access to technology acquire that kind of access and increase the opportunities these individuals have in creating a better life and bridging the digital gap they are facing.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:
    a)“The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    -The statement above means that the e-government fails to be successful without the help of the government in legitimizing their work. The text states “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework.” Nothing the e-government does or creates can work or be useful unless there is a legitimate backbone from the government supporting them with proper paperwork and structure. Otherwise it will crumble and the initiatives will fail.

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  7. Emily Bohatch says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Public libraries help bridge the gap in the digital divide by providing a public space for any and all users to access reliable internet and learning materials. Studies show that low income communities make great use of public library computers. More than half of young adults living below the poverty line use these computers for educational purposes. Even those with broadband connection use library resources to get work done because connection is stronger there.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    The key to a healthy democracy is an informed public, so, yes, governments should invest more in public libraries. Not only do public libraries give citizens an opportunity to study through physical reading materials, but they also provide a space for research and digital collaboration through public computers. Public computers are one of the biggest factors in use right now for lessening the digital divide.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.
    Different types of government will need to employ different methods of converting to e-government. Fledgling governments planning to use the internet as a form of dispersing information and legislation need to establish a sort of legitimacy before it can expand. If there is no process that makes e-government actions legitimate, than they won’t be effective.

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    1. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

      I also think that public libraries could be beneficial with the attempts to close the digital gap! They offer so much access to online and offline sources. Even those who fall in the lower class can go to a library and hop on the internet or any other computer program as needed. They can be super helpful in the future if the government considers funding them more.

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  8. Michael Mack says:

    Study 1.
    a.) Public libraries as said in the article are “disseminating online and offline information”(pg 1). Public libraries serve as a resource in the community for those who were once apart of that digital divide.Living in such a Tech savvy world its important to get everyone on board when it comes to internet use.The library for me has always served as a pillar in my community because most of us kids back in the day didn’t know about computers unless we went to the library.

    b.) There should be no question when it comes to government funding libraries, Of course they should. In my opinion they are almost like schools, a place for young individuals and older individuals to learn and grow . There are so many resources within a library now, jobs, reading, writing, and more important free computer access.If we are so concerned about bridging this digital gap well this is where we need to start. Public libraries are positive especially during the summer for kids, its a place to go to have fun learning, and bridging the gap early.

    Study 2
    a.)I feel like in order for the e government to do there part they need that extra backup or support from that legal framework aka the government. The government has a great number of tasks in making sure the e government is on the right track which are ,”identifying and addressing”(pg. 165)

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  9. Kaitlyn Henry says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:
    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Public libraries play a key part in bridging the gap between those who do and don’t have access to information technology. The article expresses the importance of internet access saying how “The lack of access to a broadband connection can limit access and effective usage of many economic and social resources, such as online learning, e-government applications, health information, employment opportunities online, and basic communication functions such as email and web browsing” (110) The 40% of Americans that report having no broadband connection and the 30% with no internet access can only get access to information technologies through “public computing facilities in libraries that provide computers and free broadband internet access, regardless of the individual’s ability to pay” (110)

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    Governments should absolutely be investing in libraries. Libraries play a very vital part of bridging the economic and digital divide. Going clear back to the video from week one, it is evident that libraries are pivotal in the lives of people who do not have access to information technologies otherwise. By investing in libraries that provide computers and free broadband access, they will be giving people the opportunity to rise up out of poverty.
    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:
    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    This text means that if the government wasn’t actively providing proper regulations and rules, e-government would not have the legitimacy that makes it possible. The articles continues to talk about the necessity of legal framework by saying “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework. This framework should be capable of identifying and addressing legal obstacles to e-government.” (165)

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  10. Austin Lumpkin says:

    Study 1:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Public libraries serve as an access center for people that don’t have reliable internet at their house. They are also a hub for learning tools and provide a safe and efficient space for people of all ages to learn and come together.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    Governments should definitely invest in public libraries. This is because it would allow libraries to expand and put more money back into the community. Also, if the government invested in libraries it would bridge more divides in terms of people not using the internet in a useful way or even using it all for that matter.

    Study 1:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.
    This statement means that e-government would not work properly unless the government had full support and aided in the success of government. The text says, “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework.”

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  11. Robert Dotson says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    After reading this study I feel that public libraries help connect with the gap in the digital divide. Public libraries do it by providing public space for all people to have access to decent learning materials and internet. In some studies and statics shows they people in low income areas make great use of the computers at these libraries and the teens and young adults who also live in these areas are mostly on them for educational reason. Although the resources that these libraries are using are not the latest products they succeed on getting the job done by keep low income communities connected.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    Yes, they should invest more into public libraries. Not just for libraries themselves but for the people. It gives citizens a chance to learn more and to help with their reading skills. They can also help with giving space for things such as research and digital collaboration with the technology they is given to the public. Technology is a big factor use in today’s times and even in digital divide.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    As I see it, the mean of this quote is saying that every country is different when it comes to the terms of how much access they can have when it comes to technology. There are laws that are built around this and they say that the access helps to ensure peoples safety. So they are saying that these laws are necessary to protect people and to relate with people and technology. A good example was the National Security Association and the United States went ahead and had regulations in place for everyone who uses almost any type of technology.

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  12. Jenna Berry says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community? Public libraries play an important role. They are a resource for many things including books, and now the internet. As the importance of the internet increases, as does the need for people to have access. Libraries provide the public access people are looking for and essentially need. Many people are without computers and internet and public libraries provide the resources they need to avoid completely becoming apart of the digital divide. For example, public libraries provide internet and computer access to low income families. Many of these families take advantage of the access provided to search for job listings.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why? Yes, governments should be investing in public libraries. The public uses libraries as a main source of information. Therefore, they need to continue running and funding is needed. If the government has the power to decrease the digital divide by providing funding to public libraries, they should do it.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples. This means that the e-government will not work without the support of the government. For the e-government to be effective, knowledge and access need to be available. More importantly, the “E-government should be regarded as an alternative and complementary approach to government administration and service delivery” (p. 164).

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  13. Austin Wolfe says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:
    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Libraries give the opportunity to those who cannot afford their own computers. Everyone has an equal opportunity to use the available/public technology.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    I think that governments should be investing in libraries because the more people who have access to technology who in other cases would not. With everything becoming accessible online they should make sure that everyone has access to the internet.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:
    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    “The legitimacy of government action would affect the enforceability of the action, either on the part of the government against a person subject to that government’s rule or on the part of a private citizen against the government” (PG 165). If they are going to enforce online rules, they need to be careful not to infringe on freedom of speech and make sure to be strict on rules so people will avoid pushing their luck. They need to follow up on set guidelines and be sure to make the information easily accessible to everyone. “E-government readiness strategies and programs will be effective only if, at the very minimum, all have functional literacy and education, which includes knowledge and having access to a computer and the Internet” (PG 164)

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  14. Michelle Zende says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries play an extremely important role in the development of a community because high percentages of households do not have access to the Internet or computers. Therefore, “this void in broadband and Internet facilities is often fulfilled by public computing facilities in libraries that provide computers and free broadband Internet access, regardless of the individual’s ability to pay” (p. 110). Public libraries allow for people of all types to share a space within their community where they can bridge the digital gap and have more accessibility to learning.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Governments should be investing in public libraries because since these libraries provide access to technology and Internet for all people, the digital gap will be getting smaller. The need for accessing Internet is increasing every year and public libraries need the appropriate resources in order for their communities to grow and allow greater opportunities for their citizens.

    Study 2 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    This statement means that the country’s government’s policies and accessibility is important in determining whether or not e-government will be successful. For example, legal issues such as legitimacy is a key factor. The text states, “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework. This framework should be capable of identifying and addressing legal obstacles to e-government” (p 165). Another extreme to be cautious of would be “the situation where electronic conversion would require a complete re-engineering of their course of action in order to address the legal risks and issues that a particular system presents or that are not being addressed as effectively in their existing system” (p 165).

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  15. Sylvia Beckner says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries are very important for families who do not have access to internet at home. It is noted that 44% of people living in households below federal poverty line rely on the library and 77 million Americans depend on the library’s resources. These statistics go without saying that libraries are an essential factor for a developing community.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Governments should be investing in public libraries, especially for cities with families below the poverty line. If not, there will still be a gap in the digital divide sectioned by income all because some families have more important things to pay for other than wifi and computers when they can be accessed for free at the public library.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    First they must identify legal issues before they can act on the e-government tactic. They must ensure that this form of government is legitimate. There needs to be guidelines regarding safety and privacy. The FBI is an example of monitoring the government through the internet.

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  16. Cree Daniels says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) Public libraries play a huge role in the development of a community. Computing facilities in a community provide access to those where access is not readily available. The article states that “40% of library computer users used the facility for career and employment needs.” Having a public space for people to access technology levels the playing field, so to speak, and assists in closing the digital divide.

    b) As stated in the previous question, public libraries computing systems assist in the search for and finding of jobs. That being said, governments should absolutely invest in public libraries and the technology they provide to communities.
    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) To me, this statement means that e-government cannot succeed without support and regulation by the government. The safety and privacy of users can only be regulated through laws enforced by the government. “The legitimacy of government action would affect the enforceability of the action, either on the part of the government against a person subject to that government’s rule or on the part of a private citizen against the government” (Basu, p. 165).

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  17. Adam Little says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Libraries are like the OG’s (original gangsters) of information. Its a hybrid community of online and online learning. It’s a place of Zen for many book worms and anybody who wants to see physical literature. Libraries also help the older generations bridge their personal gap in the digital divide. They offer programs that teach anyone who’s interested in gaining technical knowledge…a lot of the times for free.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Definitely! Why not? Libraries are full of the dopest old people you will ever meet. That’s the only reason the government needs. End of discussion.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

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  18. Kirsten Cupach says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Computing facilities in public libraries are helping to bridge the digital divide. According to the text, “As of October 2010, 40% of Americans reported having no broadband connection, and close to 30% of the households had no internet access.” Public libraries allow these individuals to access career opportunities, e-government applications, health services, etc., that they would otherwise lack access to at home.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    In my opinion, governments should absolutely be investing in public libraries considering its role in bridging the digital divide. Computing facilities in public libraries levels the playing field. It presents opportunities and information to individuals who otherwise lack access to a computer or broadband internet. According to the reading, the number of people taking advantage of computing facilities in public libraries is growing. The more funding government provides to public libraries, the more people are presented more opportunities to find a job, apply for government aid, etc.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    According to the reading, “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework.” Basically, in order for e-government to be considered reliable, regulations and guidelines must be put in place by the government to ensure the capabilities of e-government will be carried out effectively. In order for e-government to be considered legitimate, the results of e-government need to be comparable to its predecessor, or government.

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  19. Stefano Minale says:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    The roles that public libraries play in the development of a community would be that they bring together people that don’t have the resources at home or schools to engage in technological experiences. Some people at public libraries might share the same media literacy skills as someone else and engage in enhancing their abilities together.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Yes, I believe that the government should be investing in public libraries because it would increase media and technological skills for people that aren’t as fortunate as many of us to have access to these devices every day. As people get older and newer mobile devices and computers come out the digital divide gap will only expand, thus the government should equip public libraries with the latest technology so that we can close the divide as best we can. In today’s society you have to be able to access and navigate through using the internet. Printing up resume’s, applying for jobs, networking with colleges, the list goes on and on where people improve and enhance their lives somehow through these technological resources.

    A) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    The government loses credibility when they fail to apprehend the problem at hand when it comes to e-government. Thus, “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework” (p. 165) When accessing information or the internet it’s very important that we understand what we are trying to access or why we intent to use these devices. The text states “Information society is about individuals; information only becomes useful and, hence, valuable if the individual understands that information. Similarly, access to technology alone will not provide development for the millions of poor in a developing country; it is about usefulness of the access” (p. 168).

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  20. Stefano Minale says:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    The roles that public libraries play in the development of a community would be that they bring together people that don’t have the resources at home or schools to engage in technological experiences. Some people at public libraries might share the same media literacy skills as someone else and engage in enhancing their abilities together.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    Yes, I believe that the government should be investing in public libraries because it would increase media and technological skills for people that aren’t as fortunate as many of us to have access to these devices every day. As people get older and newer mobile devices and computers come out the digital divide gap will only expand, thus the government should equip public libraries with the latest technology so that we can close the divide as best we can. In today’s society you have to be able to access and navigate through using the internet. Printing up resume’s, applying for jobs, networking with colleges, the list goes on and on where people improve and enhance their lives somehow through these technological resources.

    A) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.
    The government loses credibility when they fail to apprehend the problem at hand when it comes to e-government. Thus, “legitimacy to act electronically can only be conferred by legislative measures and supported by an effective legal framework” (p. 165) When accessing information or the internet it’s very important that we understand what we are trying to access or why we intent to use these devices. The text states “Information society is about individuals; information only becomes useful and, hence, valuable if the individual understands that information. Similarly, access to technology alone will not provide development for the millions of poor in a developing country; it is about usefulness of the access” (p. 168).

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  21. Benjamin Epling says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries play a major role in the development of a community. Public libraries may be the only place where people can have internet access. In today’s world having access to the Internet is crucial. Not having the ability to seek important information to benefit your life can hold you down and leave you in the digital divide. Public libraries allow communities in poverty to have a chance to use the Internet where they normally wouldn’t have the ability. Public libraries create a safe space for a community. People can use the library for multiple reasons such as entertainment, news, and work.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    I believe that the government should be funding public libraries. The government should know how much a community can benefit from having a library. Educating the public about job opportunities or self-improvement is important in today’s economy. Public Libraries help those that are less fortunate and don’t have the resources to access the Internet. The government should have interest to helping communities and especially one’s under the poverty line. The more the government invest in public libraries, communities will start to grow and benefit.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples

    An e-government is made up of multiple different infrastructures that are networked together. Developed countries have money and power to create IT infrastructures to operate an e-government. Developing countries don’t have the same resources and fail to execute e-government. E-governments are successful because there are legal safeguards protecting those infrastructures. If a country has weak or no legal safeguards it has the possibility to have a failing e-government or one not at all. For developing countries just now starting to build their e-governments they are facing difficult roadblocks because of not knowing what legal actions will benefit them now and in the future.

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  22. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Public libraries are important because they assist in bridging the digital divide. They do this by providing computers with internet access as well as books that offer additional information. This gives those with lesser privileges the opportunity to use these resources and feel more connected.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    I believe the government should invest in public libraries because it can be beneficial with the attempts to close the digital divide. By allowing those who do not regularly have access to the internet or other computer sources, the chance to do so, it can create a more connected community.

    Study 2 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    This text explains how an e-government wouldn’t be possible because the government would need to play a very active role with regulations. There would need to be many rules in action to keep things on track. It would be hard to have a regulated government online, and know that there was no way for something to interfere or cause issues, especially with the gaps we see today.

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  23. Wendy Weyers says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:
    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    Pubic libraries allow access to knowledge about the world and the local community for everyone in the area whether they are rich or poor. Public libraries have computers and books and most of the time even resources on how to use the computers and books. My local library at home has programs to help teach older people how to use computers and the Internet and programs to help younger people fill out resumes-all for free. As long as a community has a library then it is easier for everyone in the community to come together, learn, and grow. According to the reading “A recent study found that 44% of people in households living below the federal poverty line ($22,000 a year for a family of four) use public library computers and internet access (Becker et al., 2010).” My household was just above the poverty line when I was growing up and we used almost all of the resources the local library had to offer, even a place to cool down when we didn’t have air conditioning in our home. These resources help communities because there is a place that helps anyone with almost anything and helps spread knowledge and resources.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    Governments should be investing in public libraries because some communities don’t have the money to have these resources and if there are no libraries then citizens are more likely to be in the digital divide and they won’t be able to be the best citizens for the government they can be.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:
    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    This statement means that in order for e-government to be successful it needs to focus on the government itself. According to the text, “It is argued that the key word in e-government is not electronic, but government. E-government should be regarded as an alternative and complementary approach to government administration and service delivery as well as a means to redefine the way it interacts with citizens and the private sector.” (p. 164) The text also writes about how in order for e-government to work the government needs to establish laws to protect the legitimacy of the e-government, the examples used are transferring data and enforcing actions. If there is not legitimacy then the e-government would fail in enforcing laws.

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  24. Vincent Romeo says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Public libraries are a great place to help bring in disadvantaged members of a community to a place where they are able to use ICT’s and peruse loads of information. Therefore libraries are essentially helping to bridge the digital divide.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    The government should indeed be investing in public libraries. If the US wants to keep up its guise up of being a democracy, a step in that direction would be funding more public libraries and actually showing an initiative to foster a healthy and well informed public. Honestly though if we are talking about government in general it is up to the people within whatever country is going to be in question.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.

    What this means is that without a concrete physical structure that one can touch and manipulate in the physical world attached to these e-government initiatives, nothing will be able to get done. We need a tangible space where deals can be finalized, analyzed, and scrutinized if e-government initiatives are ever going to work.

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  25. Evan Rose says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:

    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?

    According to the study, “Community and family support networks might be further engaged through library outreach activities that promote childcare and ride sharing in exchange for completing essential online tasks for others” (116). As explicitly stated in the writing libraries serve as a core framework for communities. They help under privileged peoples in the community and provide a subsidy for those with means as a established network that they can turn to for information and resources.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?

    I believe so. As for whether it be federal or local government funding it I know for a fact that it should be local government investing. As to why the government should invest in libraries is because it would serve as a community outreach program and increase the value of the local community. It would also be beneficial to allow low income peoples to have access to resources such as books or computer resources. As the study says, “By providing public access computers, public libraries act as a conduit in strengthening the community by meeting the information needs of their residents such as connecting under-privileged residents to online applications, learning opportunities and potential employment” (117). So, libraries are good for community well being according to the study.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:

    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.
    The three prerequisites for e-government to succeed as a development tool according to the study are, “a minimum threshold level of technological infrastructure, human capital, and e-connectivity” (164). So, the statement, “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation” means that the government most foster efficient framework for e-government. For instance, when government healthcare came online in the United States it was released with multiple faults and bugs. This bared successful application to services and hampered many Americans.

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  26. Chad Gerzeny says:

    Study 1 (DeMaagd et al) Questions:
    a) What role do public libraries play in the development of a community?
    Public libraries play a very important role in the development of a community. According to the text, they are responsible for the dissemination of online and offline information. A Gates foundation study found that public libraries play a particularly important role in low-income neighborhoods. They found that most instances, home computers were being abandoned in favor of library computers, as people have found library computers and software to work faster than most home networks. They also hold an aspect of reliability. They are constantly connected.

    b) Should governments be investing in public libraries? If yes, why?
    The text mentions that despite federal investment, library administrators are unsure if such initiatives and investment funds can keep pace with growing demand for public computing facilities. This implies to me that government should continue to invest in public libraries in order to meet public demand. We are talking about an investment into the future education of our people, and I think the government should do all it possibly can financially to ensure the demand is met.

    Study 1 (Basu) Questions:
    a) “The success of e-government initiatives and processes are highly dependent on the government’s role in ensuring a proper legal framework for their operation.” What does this mean? Explain with examples.
    This means that the success of e-government and the initiatives it carries are greatly dependent on being provided proper information by IT infrastructure regarding safety and security. However, e-government’s must also contribute by providing definitive guidelines for the developing countries as to what type of legal safeguards would be necessary to protect the legal safeguards of such government to protect its interests. Government’s looking to assume an e-government role must also be held liable and responsible via binding and enforceable obligations. Such framework should be capable of identifying and addressing legal obstacles to e-government.

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