Media and the Digital Divide

MDIA 4011, Scripps College of Communication, Ohio University

Week 6 – Education, Health and Wellbeing

This week’s readings are:

  1. Khan, M. L., Wohn, D. Y., & Ellison, N. B. (2014). Actual friends matter: An internet skills perspective on teens’ informal academic collaboration on Facebook. Computers & Education, 79, 138-147.
  2. Friemel, T. N. (2016). The digital divide has grown old: Determinants of a digital divide among seniors. new media & society, 18(2), 313-331.

Responses to these questions are due by 9:00 pm, Thursday.

Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

b) Do online friends matter?

Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

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29 comments on “Week 6 – Education, Health and Wellbeing

  1. Bailey Castillo says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are skills associated with properly and efficiently using the technological resources one has access to. These skills are also referred to as “digital literacies” (p. 138). The text states that an example of higher order skills is “requesting help in an efficient manner” (p. 138). These higher order skills are “an important element of social media use for learning, and possibly academic collaboration” (p. 138). The skills allow individuals to communicate and connect with others through technological resources.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    While online connections can help to establish relationships, “lack of social interaction is the main element that may inhibit the realization of full benefits of online collaborative learning” (p. 139). If online friends provide beneficial relationships and foster connections, they matter. Although it is encouraged to create social connections outside of the technological world, one can still benefit from having “online friends”.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The text states that ‘grey divide’ is “a divide among seniors of age 65+ years” (p. 313). This divide refers to the digital divide of technological access and skills. The text states that this grey divide can be bridged by controlling for “education, income, technical interest, pre-retirement computer use and marital status” (p. 313). In addition, “encouragement by family and friends is a strong predictor for Internet use” (p. 313). If family encouragement for them to get involved increases, their chances of connecting and developing the proper internet skills may be established.

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    1. Ryan Struckel says:

      Bailey,

      You are absolutely right with your response to Study 1 Question 2. I have made many friends worldwide from my experiences, and social media is one of my only ways to keep in contact with them. On my most recent vacation, I made a couple friends from Houston and neither of them have social media accounts besides Twitter. While it is likely I will lose contact with them because I don’t use Twitter, I have many other friendships that have been maintained through the usage of social media. I believe that it is better to make friends in person than online, however, social media is perfect for maintaining friendships with people whom you do not see regularly.

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  2. Jarad says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are also known as information skills. They consist of a vast array of skills but typically are “skills that involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis, and hence greater cognitive processing” (Khan et al p. 141). They are important as the study shows us because the higher the skill set the more an individual can utilize the internet especially for seeking information.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    According to the study by Khan et al friends matter in regards to Facebook and studies but only if they are “actual friends”. Actual friends meaning that the user has the potential for face to face encounters as well and has confided in this person though other means and was not randomly met online. “The number of “actual” friends is a positive predictor of class-related academic collaboration instead of total number of friends” (p. 142). The more actual friends that a person has the more opportunities that person has as far as acquiring information goes.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is a digital divide among seniors aged 65 and older. The gap between online and offline seniors can be addressed by encouraging the use of social media. ” encouragement by one’s social network is found to be a major factor influencing the likelihood of Internet use” (p. 327). With the use of social media one can learn a multitude of skills that can assist them with the digital divide. However there are also hazards that come with social media and the family should help with that burden by teaching their parents how to use the internet and what to look out for increasing the user’s confidence.

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  3. Kara Dierkes says:

    Study 1:
    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    In the reading, higher order skills refer to things such as students being able to manipulate, structure, and use information to their advantage while using the Internet. They are skills that involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis, and hence greater cognitive processing. They are important for problem solving and critical thinking (p.141).

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Online friends like Facebook friends may provide various forms of support such as emotional and instrumental support. Other classmates connected to each other via SNS may provide support by sharing resources and time (p.139). But there studies have shown that online “friends” are not really “actual friends”, because the social media is used more often to enhance a “real friendship” than one with a stranger.

    Study 2:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is the divide among seniors at the age of 65 and higher. It involves the inequalities between age groups with special attention to the oldest members of society in comparison with their younger successors (p. 314). To bridge this gap, our society must find control for education, income, technical interest, pre-retirement computer use and marital status (p. 313).

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  4. Jenna Berry says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important? High order skills are also know as information skills. High order skills require increased cognitive processing and involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.These skills are different from lower-order skills. High order skills are important for problem solving and critical thinking (p. 141).

    b) Do online friends matter? Online friends do matter according to this study. However, the number of actual friends, (online friends that you are also friends with offline), is more important and predictive of social capital than the total number of online friends (p. 142). Online friends can acts as a resource for assistance and help with coursework.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged? The grey divide is a divide among seniors ages 65 and older. This digital divide can be bridged by overcoming the factors preventing seniors from using the internet. Seniors prefer one on one, private settings for learning to use technology and the internet. Lack of support and physical or mental limitations are factors that need to be overcome in order to bridge the gap. Proper encouragement, teaching, access, and fulfillment of seniors’ needs will help to bridge the gap the grey divide.

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  5. Kaitlyn Shive says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a)What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    -Higher order skills are also known as information skills. They are a set of skills that have been divided off from the ‘lower-order’. In the text it shows that some skills “that involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis and hence greater cognitive processing” are of higher order skills. These are important because they help students advance in the media environment by being able to “manipulate, structure and use information”.

    b)Do online friends matter?

    -In the conclusion of the study, it was found that friends do matter. It was however shown that ‘actual’ friends are what matters when it comes to online connections etc. The total amount of friends one may have on a site, does not matter compared to the actual friends one may have that can give insight, advice, connections and more to that person.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    -The grey divide is a divide ‘among seniors of age 65 plus years’. It is a digital divide or exclusion that seniors may be facing with technological access and usage. Family members, to use the Internet more often as well as support and encouragement through social networks can bridge this grey divide through encouragement. Private learning settings also contribute to bridging the gap.

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  6. Kirsten Cupach says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are skills associated with one’s ability to engage with technology effectively. Often referred to as “digital literacy,” higher order skills include information seeking, information sharing, and requesting help in an efficient manner, as mentioned in the reading. Higher order skills act as a “prerequisite for any collaborative activity online.” In other words, a lack of higher order skills greatly reduces the chances of a student engaging with other students online for educational purposes.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    According to the text, “social interaction is a prerequisite for collaboration and collaborative learning,” and a “lack of social interaction is the main element that may inhibit the realization of full benefits of online collaborative learning.” While it may be true that online relationships may be beneficial or meaningful, many online relationships stem from “actual” relationships with friends. In my opinion, online relationships can matter, but in order to have a successful relationship online, there needs to be a minimal amount of social interaction with the same individual, as well.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is “a divide among seniors of age 65+ years.” According to the text, Internet usage is skewed in this age group, resulting in a partial exclusion of seniors 70+ online. This divide is far from being closed. In order for this divide to be bridged, seniors should be encouraged by family and friends to engage online. Because private learning settings are preferred over professional courses in regards to gaining digital literacy, friends and family can act as mentors to seniors looking to get online.

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  7. Krysti Finney says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    According to Khan et al, higher order skills involve more critical thinking. When displaying these skills you should be able to analyze and evaluate a situation instead of just having a general understanding of what you are doing. It’s important to have higher order skills in order to problem solve effectively. Once a person develops these skills they should be able to navigate the internet effectively.
    b) Do online friends matter?
    As with friends in real life, online friends can be just as important. People need companionship. In the survey by Khan et al, “We found that those who reported that their Facebook friends provided information, ideas, or explanations were more likely to seek academic help. Instrumental support from Facebook friends was by far the most powerful factor in our model predicting class-related academic collaboration, (page 146).”
    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    The grey divide is an age gap that shows inequality from the youngest of internet users to the oldest, which includes 65 years of age and up. Friemal found that seniors need support from home to help influence the older generation to partake in internet use. Other ways to bridge the gap is to have secondary access, like the library to help with questions, support, and to find a way to appeal to the 65 and up club. Our society has changed, and many seniors are using the internet for things such as FaceTime and Skype in order to keep in touch with their loved ones. They might not use the internet in the ways that young users do however, they are becoming more aware of the resources available with internet access. I agree with Friemal, influence and education on internet usage can help bridge the significant gap of the grey divide.

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  8. Emma Schoonmaker says:

    Study 1:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are considered to be “skills that involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis – and hence greater cognitive processing,” (M.L. Khan et. Al., 2014, p. 141). Also known as ‘digital literacy,’ these skills are considered to be ones that are acquired after having ample familiarity with the Internet. Additionally, these skills are characterized as having developed in the 21st century, during the age of the technology boom. Higher order skills are important because they are now considered to be crucial in today’s society. Aside from needing to possess these skills in order to get and maintain a job, it is also important to be able to use them to “sift through, assess, and utilize online information in an efficient and timely manner,” (M.L. Khan et. Al., 2014, p. 141). This type of skillset allows people – namely kids in school – to focus more on their tasks at hand and better utilize their time and education.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Online friends do matter for several reasons. When you have an online community to lean on in an academic context, you then become more likely to succeed because of the network of support that surrounds you. These people, given the speedy and efficient nature of the Internet, will be able to assist you and answer any questions that you may have in a timely manner. In addition, the study found that the number of Facebook friends you have – those whom you actually consider your friend in real life – are “a positive predictor of class-related academic collaboration instead of total number of friends

    Study 2:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it be bridged?

    The grey divide is what separates senior citizens and young people as it relates to technology use. A study by Thomas Friemel shows that “the major gap does not lie between what might be called the ‘pre-seniors’ (50-59 years), from those younger but rather between the ‘old seniors’ (70+) and the rest of the populace,” (Friemel, 2014, p. 315). When trying to bridge this gap, the solution is not to have grandkids train their grandparents to use technology. The disparity comes from these senior citizens not having experience with computers before retiring, as well as having them reside in rural areas alone without access to technologies and people who know their way around them. We need to work harder to expose elderly people in rural areas to up and coming technologies, and create learning programs that are personalized for their age group and experience with technology.

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  9. Emily Bohatch says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills are often associated with critical thinking skills, including analytical reasoning, synthesis and evaluation. These skills are essential to learning, especially in a situation where something is self taught or intuitive leaps are needed to bridge the gap from topic to topic.

    b) Do online friends matter?
    Online friends are often, as shown in the literature, offline friends. Being friends with them online lowers communication barriers and allows for online collaboration. Online friends increase ones social capital, which has positive affects on academic achievement.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    The grey divide is the inequality in internet usage and skills between old seniors and their younger counterparts. The gap, which leads only 30% of seniors to use the internet, is often caused by motivational indifference or deficient knowledge. Stressing the importance of social capital, or being able to maintain connections over long distances, is one factor that improves the gap. Encouragement from peers and family members can often encourage old seniors to join the online realm.

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  10. Michelle Zende says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    The reading states that higher order skills are also known as information skills. These higher order skills require students to have the ability to “manipulate, structure, and use information to their advantage” (p. 141). These students are also able to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize information to use problem-solving and critical thinking.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Online friends do matter in order to have a wide range of people to connect with as well as having “actual” friends. According to the reading, the results of the study showed that the “actual” number of Facebook friends predicted class-related collaboration through Facebook. However, the total number of friends was not important in predicting this. Therefore, having more “actual” friends can allow for higher levels of academic collaboration because they “may increase one’s chances of getting a response and having a wider set of connections to tap” (p. 146).

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The digital divide between seniors 65 years and older is known as the ‘grey divide’. The reading states, “persons who have used a computer at least from time to time before their retirement are 8.76 times as likely to belong to the group of onliners” (p. 323). Along with other factors including general technical interest, marital status, and encouragement by the social network, seniors’ are more likely to use the Internet. Therefore, the ‘grey divide’ can be bridged by continuous use and encouragement from friends and family members.

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    1. Robert Dotson says:

      Michelle I agree with you about how real friends are better when it come to dealing with social media and they do help when it comes to bettering yourself.

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  11. Sylvia Beckner says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher-order skills go beyond the surface of learning and are tactics such as analytical reasoning, synthesis, and evaluation. Higher-order skills are important because they allow two or more people to engage in the subject matter they are learning, thus familiarize one another with new information, also known as collaborative learning.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Online friends do matter because they have a positive impact on social capital. It was said in the article in regards to academic collaboration that Facebook friends allow for interactive activities and question-asking related to academic work. For example, I have experienced an instance where an online classmate and I were confused on the project we had to do for a class. When we saw each other on the roster, the guy DM’d me on Twitter asking for help and clarification. Had we not followed each other on social media, we would have never been able to help each other as quick as we wanted to.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The grey divide is the separation between those who are 65 and older in 2009. A way to help bridge the divide would be to do the AEIOU project which allows teenagers to teach senior citizens how to use technology. This can close the gap and provide a learning experience from both ends.

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    1. Michael Mack says:

      Great point I do believe there are some positives and negatives when it comes to online friends but it’s also depends on the type of social media platform you use.

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  12. Austin Wolfe says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are known as information skills. They are important because they are how well you use technology effectively.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    It can be beneficial to have online friends but it seems that most online relationships are used to help “real life” relationships grow.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is “a divide among seniors of age 65+ years” (PG 313). It can be bridged by working on understanding technology in use and be encouraged to get online to learn and be mentored by family members.

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    1. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

      I agree that bridging the gap can be done through encouragement. Younger generations can help the elders learn how everything works, and what benefits social media and technology have on us all today. It could be a great advancement to our world if everyone was on the same page and could thoroughly communicate with one another on similar platforms. Mentoring each other is a great idea.

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  13. Kaitlyn Henry says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    In the reading, higher order skills are first described as requesting help in an efficient matter as ways of using media for learning and academic collaboration. (138) Later in the article higher order Internet skills are referred to as “digital literacies.” (141) It explain that teens who lack those digital literacies “waste time when they are online…because productive information seeking requires using the appropriate keywords when searching, and thus poor search strategies can lead to ineffective and time-wasting activities.” (141) Basically, higher order skills are necessary to effectively search the internet for desired information.
    b) Do online friends matter?
    In the reading it is explained that a study was done to see if the number of Facebook friends or “actual friends” were predictive of social capital and it was found that the number of actual friends a person has is more predictive. The reading then continues in saying that “In the context of class-related academic collaboration, having more “actual” Friends may represent more possible sources of assistance when requesting homework help or other kinds of assistance because presumably “actual” friends are those contacts who are more likely to respond to requests for help.” (142)
    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is referring to a divie among senior citizens 65 years and older. In this article, they are looking at this divide and it is explained that “Compared to ‘middle aged’ which they define as people between 55 and 64 years of age, young seniors (65–74 years) are only 63% as likely to use the Internet, while old seniors (75+) are only 30% as likely.” (316) The key reasons for seniors to not be using the Internet are motivational indifference or deficient knowledge. And so, motivating these seniors and informing/teaching them what they could have access to and how to access it, would be a way to bridge this gap. Seniors are not getting the support they need to be able to grow with the curve and keep up with technology.

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  14. Ryan Struckel says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    According to the text, Higher Order Skills refer to the skills people have with effectively using Information on the internet. These skills are important in problem solving and lead to a greater cognitive processing power. The lower a person’s High Order skills, the less likely they will be to be able to manipulate, evaluate, communicate, and absorb information from the internet.

    b) Do online friends matter?
    According to the study, online friends do matter, but it’s the actual friends that matter most in an online setting. Most of the time, online friends are not the same as actual friends because these people don’t communicate or have a relationship in real life. I can agree with this finding because since I have participated in the Disney College Program, I made actual friends that live worldwide. Some of these friends I did meet online before in person. Besides texting, social media networks are the only way for us to keep in touch and plan visits.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The grey divide is the gap between people aged 65+ who use the internet, and those who don’t. These seniors often lack most skills necessary to gain knowledge, and use the internet properly. This gap will be hard to close, but in time will close some as our current generation grows older. To fix this issue now, encouraging seniors to partake in social media could be the first step into a more connected older generation. Social media often teaches and increases the skills necessary to capitalize on internet usage.

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  15. Austin Lumpkin says:

    Study 1:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills are simply how well a person can use the Internet effectively and efficiently. These skills are important because it is the difference between someone using the Internet as a tool to expand knowledge and someone who doesn’t have the right skills to do so.

    b) Do online friends matter?
    The text stated that online friends do matter. However, in my opinion it is a situational scenario. There are online friends that don’t necessarily have a positive influence on you in regard to expanding knowledge. There are also online friends that do matter in regard to building a positive relationship and using that friend to gain knowledge/experience. Additionally, the friends that matter the most are the ones you can build a face-to-face relationship with and develop an ‘actual’ friendship with.

    Study 2:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    The ‘grey divide’ involves senior citizens 65 years and older. They are in a gap that spawns from a general lack of knowledge about the Internet. A way to help bridge this gap would be to get different types of programs that involve Internet skills started in places such as retirement homes, Legion halls, or even bingo halls, etc. Also, senior citizens need to be educated on all of the different types of information/entertainment/content that they are missing out as well as just how easy it is to use the Internet effectively and efficiently.

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  16. Wendy Weyers says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills are information skills and digital literacy. These skills, according to the text, involve analysis, evaluation, synthesis, greater cognitive processing, problem solving and critical thinking. These skills are important especially in regards to the Internet because they allow users to effectively use and manipulate information online.

    b) Do online friends matter?
    Actual friends do matter and these can be online or offline. According to the study, “‘actual’ number of friends would be a positive predictor of class-related academic collaboration.” The total number of friends wasn’t significant in predictions. The text talks about how there is more help and information from online networks and if you have the skills to utilize it then online friends do matter.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    The “grey divide” is the digital divide that specifically looks at age inequality. The digital divide is widening between young and old demographics. Seniors are not online nearly as much as younger people. According to the reading, this divide is caused partly by the expectations that seniors are not expected to use the Internet and so they assume it’s difficult to use. Their support groups like friends and families can influence them to use the Internet and support them in gaining the skills they need to get online.

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  17. Stefano Minale says:

    Study 1

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills which are also known as informational skills are skills use to manipulate, structure, and use information to one’s advantage. As stated in the reading, examples of higher order skills would be analyzation, evaluation, and synthesization. These skills are useful and problem solving and critical thinking. These skills help a person effectively monitor through the internet.

    b) Do online friends matter?
    As the study concludes, it states that online friends matter, but actual friends are more key in reality. “In the increasingly networked world, the availability of the Internet especially at home is important, but beyond access and skills, the perceived ability to mobilize one’s social resources is the strongest factor predicting academic collaboration” (146). It is as if online friendship is a branch to create a stronger bond with actual friends
    Study 2

    a)What is the ‘Grey Divide’? How can it be bridged?
    The grey divide is a study that focuses on the divide between seniors of 65+ years. It is said that the divide is skewed and internet access is excluded for seniors 70+. “The magnitude of the differences emphasizes that the digital divide contains a distinct grey divide, which is still far from being closed” (325). Younger generations that have higher order skills should teach older citizens to become more acclimated with internet access so that the bridge will cease to exist. I think as the world gets modernized with technological resources it will be much harder on older generations. I’m more of a hands on I’ll figure it out type once I navigate through it for a little bit, but we been technologically savvy since we were young we grew up with it in schools, hence we should share our higher order skills with our predecessors before us.

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  18. Evan Rose says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    High order skills are information utilization skills such as requesting help in an efficient manner (138). There are essential for critical thought, analysis and problem solving. It aids in the development of information seeking and sharing abilities. These skills are the core to digital literacy and success in our modern age.
    b) Do online friends matter?

    The question of “do online friends matter?” is subjective. The study’s article presents that, “social capital is a theoretical framework that considers access to different types of resources within one’s network” (141). So perhaps individual social media and online friends are not intrinsically important but rather the networks that the represent are. There is also the concept of instrumental support which the study describes as “extent to which one’s network provides help when needed” (142). The study concludes that there are a significant in elements of Facebook friends’ instrumental support.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it be bridged?

    The “gray divide” is defined as a divide among seniors of age 65+ years (313). It is expressed through the differences in usage and capacity to use digital platforms and products. Then there is the question of how to remedy this particular gap. The study suggests by it’s responses that the most prevalent reasons for not using the internet is the use is too complicated, the high effort to learn, and safety concerns (322). So to alleviate the gap, the study suggests that those reason are the most important to address.

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  19. Chad Gerzeny says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills are defined by the reading as requisite Internet skills needed for collaboration and learning. They are more common among younger teens/adults primarily because of current social media presence in classrooms. Recent studies have been performed on the importance of skills. Teachers are asking students to use Facebook to induce student interaction as opposed to just learning. Having these skills are important for students to succeed not only academically, but also socially.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    According to the article, they online friends do matter. The article mentions that online friends, such as friends on Facebook, may provide users with various forms of support such as emotional or instrumental support. It also mentions that Facebook friends help enable academic collaborations. The article helps explain the importance of “mutual friends” in which people are able to expand their sharing network/platform to more users. The article comes to the conclusion that Facebook friends instrumental support is positively related to class-related academic collaboration online.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The “grey divide” is known as a digital divide suffered among seniors of the age 65 or older. Encouragement from family and friends may help bridge the divide. Seniors are typically viewed as inept when it comes to technology because for the majority of their life it did not exist or rather develop at the speed in which it has today. Adjusting settings within the technology to make it more user friendly may also help the “grey” population adapt to the technology faster and easier.

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  20. Vincent Romeo says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills set themselves apart from the skill pack do to the greater cognitive effort needed to perform them. Higher order skills also tend to involve analysis followed by evaluation and finally synthesis. These skills tend to be important when it comes to critical thinking and problem solving situations.

    b) Do online friends matter?According to this study it turns out that online friends do indeed matter. However when it comes to having friends online, most of your connections will be determined by previous connections already made in your reality. Therefore whilst online friends may be important, those who are physically in your proximity tend to have more bearing overall.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    The “grey divide” is a term in reference to the digital divide centered around senior citizens that are 65 years of age or older. This bridge in access can be crossed if we encourage our older friends to use the internet more often! Senior citizens tend to prefer one on one sessions when attempting to learn the ways of the web, so it is up to the people surrounding them to help get them more involved.

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  21. Benjamin Epling says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    Higher order skills are skills that will take a higher level of cognitive consecration. When having higher order skills on the Internet you have a better understanding and ability to communicate online. You have the ability to seek out information that may be vital for your personal or professional life. Working to collaborate and communicate with people online helps individuals accomplish the work they need to. Having high order skills on the internet gives a person the advantage to seek out information that will benefit their life. You’re able to research and find what information you’re looking for in a faster time. Being able to collaborate with peers online for academic purposes and discuss topics gives you an advantage over people that don’t have higher order skills.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Yes, online friends matter a lot in today’s society. I believe as technology progresses having online friends will become normative in society. Having weak-ties gives you an advantage over people to find opportunities that will benefit one’s life. Being able to connect with people a any time and location is possibility now during the digital age. The more people you know the greater ability to network and meet people.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The grey divide is the study and analysis of the divide between age groups when dealing with social media. The grey divide is a side story of how the digital divide leaves people behind the technological curve. As people fall behind in literacy on the internet because of SES they also fall behind because of age. Young people are now growing up with technology and are easier to adapt to the changing landscape. Older generations are having a harder time adapting and learning. There are a few ways we can start to close the grey divide. We must start involving people that aren’t comfortable with technology and teach them. Social inclusion and equal distribution of resources and life chances will gives us a better ability to bridge the digital divide.

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  22. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher older skills, also known as information skills or digital literacies, are important to social media use and learning. They allow people to communicate better with one another.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    Online friends only matter if the people are actual friends. Meaning that they have face to face interactions and communication. Having online friends is important because it allows people to have access to more information and connections within technology.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The grey divide is a digital dived among seniors 65 years and older. To bridge this divide, individuals can work to encourage the use of technology and explain the benefits from it. It may allow the elders to become more educated and connected to younger generations.

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  23. Adam Little says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:

    a) What are higher order skills? Why are they important?

    Higher order skills is a term that helps describe the learning process that takes place when using social media to learn. Higher order skills are used in order to communicate efficiently as well as gather information from online resources. On the introduction page it states “an important element of social media use for learning, and possibly academic collaboration, may be these higher order skills, such as requesting help in an efficient manner.” Understanding how to use certain technologies opens the door for teachers of the online platform. The ones learning to use the technology or “asking the questions” are the students. Higher order skills are a collaborative set of skills that help us to process all of the information we are receiving while on social media.

    b) Do online friends matter?

    I think online friends are just as important as friends in the physical realm. Our society is slowly depending on networks that evolve through different realms such as social media. Although the lack of social interaction is present, it’s only a matter of time before online friends become good enough for us in terms of human to human connection and collaboration. More and more we hear our professors talk about how important it is to build our online profiles with much caution. I think the same concept should apply to our personal social media accounts. They are being watched just like an employer watches a linkedin profile. Watch who you interact with on Facebook and twitter because people will keep a close eye on those interactions. So yes, online friends are very important.

    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:

    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?

    The grey divide describes the gap between people 65 and older who use the internet and those who don’t. Obviously they lack in internet skills as well as internet comprehension. One of the main reasons only 30% of seniors over 70 years old use the internet is the lack of internet skills and lack of motivation to even use the internet. The biggest way to bridge this gap would be to give free lessons on how to use certain technologies and a class on how to use the internet. There are already services like these being offered at public libraries, but even then it’s not common that these classes are offered. The same way we use tax money to fund education for our children should be applied to senior education.

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  24. Michael Mack says:

    Study 1 A) Higher order skills is like an education practice that is determined to prove that some learning needs more cognitive processing than others. In the article they talk about how academic collaboration may be impacted by academic performance according to certain demographics. It looks at how educational opportunities may take a downfall in the future and stresses how it’s important for academic progress to maintain stability, and consistency. B) So the online friends do matter but it is said that “real” friends make up the social capital while most of your Facebook friends don’t. the real friends are more likely to help you with homework and give you the necessary tools. pretty much all of us can relate being that we are college students and we have GroupMe, blackboard, drive etc. Study 2 A.) The grey divide is meant for those who are 65+ and basically the internet is skewed with this generation(pg313). You have to understand most people around that age lack the important technical skills , and knowledge . Most of the older folks I know say that they are old school and back in there say they didn’t have all of the gadgets and still don’t need it. This type of bridge will never get close unless we start getting those
    People digitally informed before the age of 65.

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  25. Robert Dotson says:

    Study 1 (Khan et al) Questions:
    a)What are higher order skills? Why are they important?
    After reading this I see that higher order skills can be known as information skills and they are group of skills that are divided off from what was called in the reading as ‘lower order’. It also showed in the reading that the skills are “that involve analysis, evaluation, and synthesis and hence greater congnitive processing”. These skills are very important because they will help students advance in the media world. This will help them by being able to “manipulate, structure and use information” while being in the media environment.

    b)Do online friends matter?
    Around the end of the reading it was found that we need friends. But when it comes to online connections ‘real-world’ friends matter. It does not matter about how many friends you have on a social media site it takes one actual friend in the real world to give you adivce, insight, and connections.
    Study 2 (Friemel) Questions:
    a) What is the ‘grey divide’? How can it bridged?
    When it come to the grey divide it deals with people who are 65 years and older. It deals with older people who may be dealing with technological access and usage. Most of the seniors family members use the internet alot to show the support and ecouragement of the older people so they a bridge the grey divide. Even private learning helps the seniors as well and it also helps with the bridging the gap.

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