Media and the Digital Divide

MDIA 4011, Scripps College of Communication, Ohio University

Week 4 – Digital Inequality and Skills

The readings for week 4 are:

  1. Hargittai, E., & Jennrich, K. (2016). The Online Participation Divide. In The Communication Crisis in America, And How to Fix It (pp. 199-213). Palgrave Macmillan US.
  2. Van Deursen, A., & Van Dijk, J. (2011). Internet skills and the digital divide. New media & society, 13(6), 893-911.

Responses to these questions are due by 9:00 pm, Thursday.

Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

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31 comments on “Week 4 – Digital Inequality and Skills

  1. Bailey Castillo says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    The online participation divide is the inequality present between who is actively using the internet AND posting onto it and who is choosing to not post. In other words, who is “contributing their own opinions in the form of posts on social media, photo and video uploads, comments on news articles, edits to collaborate sites” (p. 1) and who is not. There is an inequality that has been present as internet access spreads across the globe. Many people have access to the internet, but only certain groups actively participate in the internet by posting on social media and sharing blogs or video posts. This online participation divide can be seen through analyzing how younger individuals are more prone to sharing on the internet versus older individuals. Although Facebook is used by many different groups and ages of people across the globe, websites like Instagram or twitter present the online participation divide much more significantly. Older individuals are far less likely to post and participate with these websites, which contributes to that participation inequality. Another example is the use of YouTube. Considering the creation of the “YouTube Kidz”, younger individuals are much more likely to contribute to the website by uploading videos to the site than older individuals are. Once again, this contributes to the online participation divide.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    The text states that “because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society” (p. 1). The world is going digital and the skills associated with the internet are vital for success in today’s society. It is at the forefront of nearly every job to be able to understand and use the internet appropriately. Possessing those skills is no longer a luxury, but a necessity. There are countless sources of information throughout the world-wide web, however, many of these sources are faulty or completely made up. To obtain accurate information, possessing internet skills is vital.
    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The article finds that “the original digital divide of physical internet access has evolved into a divide that includes differences in skills to use the internet” (p. 1). In other words, the digital divide is continuing to evolve as the internet becomes more prevalent in society. The study also finds that “level of operational and formal internet skills appeared quite high” (p. 1), while “the level of information and strategic internet skills is questionable” (p. 1). This means that people are able to operate the internet successfully, however, many individuals are not able to successfully use the internet to acquire accurate information.

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    1. Evan Rose says:

      Baily,

      You gave a good explanation of the concepts in the readings this week. You gave the standard and traditional outlets for online participation but you also stated sites that are almost a byproduct of these participation. Such as Youtube Kidz being created as a reflection of the presence of younger people on the site.

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  2. Jarad says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    The online participation divide is the division amongst different genders, race, age, and other characteristics of users on the internet. The divide reflects the different areas of internet usage and where the majority of contributions of input regarding a subject comes from. An example from the reading is that the majority of “mommy bloggers” are white women and they represent the majority of the users in that category. A concern for the division is that the information that is put out on these different sites is biased towards a certain clientele.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    According to Duersen and Dijk “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should now be considered as vital assets”. Technology is the major driving factor for almost everything in our life and the internet will forever be a part of our world for the foreseeable future. Most independent research, media, work, communications, etc. is done via the internet and older ways are becoming more and more rare. The ease and efficiency that comes with the use of the internet is unrivaled and therefore mastery of it is something that everyone should strive for. The more skills one has the more potential they have to better their education, their careers, and their day to day lives.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    The research of Duerson and Dijk showed that within the digital divide there is also another divide based on internet familiarity. “The results of the conducted studies strengthen the findings that the original digital divide has developed a second divide that includes differences in the skills to use the internet” (p. 16). Just because someone has access to the internet does not mean that they are suited to use it to its full potential. To say that you have access to a car does not mean that you are a professional driver nor have any idea what is happening under the hood. The same concept applies to a computer or the internet, having the availability does not make you proficient.

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    1. Austin Wolfe says:

      “To say that you have access to a car does not mean that you are a professional driver nor have any idea what is happening under the hood. The same concept applies to a computer or the internet, having the availability does not make you proficient.” Perfectly said! I couldn’t agree more.

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      1. Krysti Finney says:

        I strongly agree with your post Jared. Technology as you stated is becoming the norm, and older ways of doing things are becoming less and less rare. When you stated that just because you drive and have a car doesn’t mean you’re a professional, it just means you have the means to drive when I agree with the same concept with technology.

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  3. Emily Bohatch says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide shows the differences in types of engagements between different demographics. For example, those living in urban areas are more likely to share or geotag content than those living in rural areas. College educated people are more likely to share content than those with only a high school education. Those in higher socioeconomic classes are more likely to use Instagram now that those in lower socioeconomic classes.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    The authors write that internet skills — specifically operational, formal, information and strategic skills — are essential for everyone to operate sufficiently in an online environment. Operating well in an online environment, they argue, is necessary for social inclusion because so much communication, collaboration and sharing of ideas takes place online.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    One of the first findings in the article is that there are very few studies that sufficiently examen internet skills because they often overlook factors outside of hardware and software usage or are self reported. Without those studies, it is hard to examine the digital divide itself. They also examen differences in internet usage by demographic, finding that younger people and people with a higher socioeconomic status have more refined digital skills. They also found that people with access to the internet at home also operate at a higher proficiency.

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  4. Kara Dierkes says:

    Study 1
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    Online participation can be defined as any type of engagement that happens online where the user contributes content that others can view or share. The online participation divide is the separation between who is actively using the Internet and who is not. This separation comes from the lack of adults that choose not to learn how to use the Internet (older, lower socioeconomic status, and reside in rural areas), the people who cannot afford the means to access the Internet, and the divides between genders and racial differences in interests. For example, my grandfather has probably used the Internet only a handful of times in his entire life. He has the means to buy the technology, and is capable of learning how to use them, but has zero interest in the idea. Unlike my grandfather, my 8-year-old cousin has a major obsession with the Internet. In fact, he’s been using it for years. This divide shows that, in certain cases, my little cousin could control a situation better that my grandfather and it starts with the digital divide.

    Study 2
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    Right off the bat, the reading states, “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society.” I believe that this simply means that having internet skills is necessary because in today’s society, using the Internet is a necessity in school, your career, and a want for basic information. Basically, there is no way around it.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    The article finds that people with low levels of internet skills struggle to do well in their education and fail to land a good career. They become disadvantaged and then are further in danger because they are still lagging behind in the digital world.

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    1. Ryan Struckel says:

      Kara,
      I believe that you are absolutely correct. Homework in schools is now mandatory online in some cases, and even now we are taking this class entirely online. There are not very many jobs in today’s society that function without the internet. I work at a movie theater and even there, our older employees have a hard time keeping up with the computerized register and projector technology. The internet is present in almost every job today, and not having an understanding of how to use it can be detrimental to a person’s success in the modern age.

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  5. Cree Daniels says:

    Study 1:

    The online participation divide is the separation between the use of Social Network Sites among different demographics. An example used in the article compared women and men bloggers. When it comes to blogging, the separation between men and women appears to be a typical stereotype in that women dominate in conversations about parenthood, while men dominate in conversations about politics.

    Study 2:

    a) Duersen and Dijk open the article by saying “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society.” They later state that internet skills, specifically operational, formal, information and strategic are essential for anyone to operate in an online environment. Technology has become the base of most interaction, therefore, internet skills are vital in communication, education and the workplace.

    b) Duersen and Dijk found that although there was already a digital divide surrounding access to the internet, there remains a divide in the level and knowledge of the use of internet. This just means that the internet may be more easily accessed, but there is still a divide regarding the correct use of the internet and ability to collect accurate information. There are internet skills that people should be familiar with to get a full and effective use from the internet.

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    1. Michael Mack says:

      I agree with you on the blog situation I do believe its a double standard when it comes to the separation between men and women. I feel like it all depends on your intended audience not every man like to talk about politics just like every woman doesn’t design her blog to be about parenthood.

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    2. Robert Dotson says:

      Cree, I agree with you how there is a separation when dealing with the online participation divide. Your example with the women and men bloggers shows that separation that is being in the online participation divide.

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  6. Michael Mack says:

    Study 1 (Magrittian & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is just a term that people use to describe how people of different race, class, and sex use digital media and access information. This is another way of talking about the digital divide but without physical computers. Now a day most of us aren’t using home computers because of the technology shifty to mobile phones, smart pads, etc. Let’s also look at how it changed the price and access in a way because it’s cheaper just to use your phone rather than buy a computer. This divide is present with my generation just look at how we are more likely to be on the internet compared top all the older folks.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    Apparently the “growing amount of information on the internet” (pg1) and the fact that we are in a tech world where everybody depends on the internet for information now. I am one of those types of people who spend a lot of time on the internet and according to the reading I “better online skills” (pg.5). Spending so much time on the internet causes a person to gain so much knowledge and skill. I look at my 64-year-old grandfather who has been gradually learning since 2015 and now he knows little bit of everything from movie sites, to music, to podcasts.

    b.) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    Their goal was to come up with a few studies to prove that the original divide has developed a second divide that includes differences in the skills to use the internet. I also see how they bring issues like” low level internet skills” to the forefront because people with that becoming disadvantaged. This means that so many people will be excluded from the positive benefits that come with the internet.

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  7. Austin Wolfe says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is looking at the “Hundreds of millions of internet users” (PG 199) and seeing what everyone is doing with their time online. My grandparents spend most of their time online scrolling through facebook and freaking out about fake news articles they see, while my cousin who is eleven bounces from snapchat to Instagram and everything else she can log into. The divide is drastic due to some of our older generations not being interested in being online, while our younger generations are using anything they can get their hands on.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and peoples increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society” (PG 1). The world is becoming digital and if you can efficiently use the internet as a tool to help you learn the sky becomes the limit.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Their research shows that although you have the access to the technology it does not mean you are able to use it to its maximum capabilities. Because technology continues to grow that means the divide is growing and evolving and we must do the same to prevent falling behind.

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  8. Krysti Finney says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is the focus on those who are not accounted or represented when analyzing social behavior. An example is the discussion of women’s sports blog, women may not drive the sports world but our voices should still be accounted for. According to Hargittai & Jennrich, “So while men may outnumber women in a domain, the underrepresented group still has the potential to make important contributions to existing dialogue on a topic. This is precisely why more representation of diverse voices is important, (pg. 204).” A second example is the use of Twitter and geographical location. In Hargittai & Jennrich’s study they found that Twitter is used more in cities than countryside. Hargittai & Jennrich express, “These findings indicate that studies that rely on user-generated geo- tagged posts to study human mobility and behavior may be presenting an urban-biased view due to such content disproportionately originating from urban users, (pg. 205).” In the medical world we have a famous line, “if it’s not documented it didn’t happen”. We should not allow those with a digital inequality to not be accounted for or to not be heard.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    Our society is and will always be a dynamic realm of modification. As individuals we are increasingly utilizing an abdunance of technology from school, work, to even our daily activites. Contrary to ten years ago, an indvidual now must apply online to find a job. This proves that technology is increasingly being utilized as a means of necessary, not a want. As stated by Van Duersen & Van Dijk, “Changes in society demand new skills, especially those related to the internet as one of the most important means of communication in contemporary society, (pg 2).” Therefore, if an indivudal cannot obtain the proper internet skills he or she may face challeges in society.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Van Duersen and Van Dijk were able to further support the fact that there is a second digital divide, the differences in skills of internet use. Their research proves that fixing the “untrained” is going to be more difficult than just access. They even questioned if the digital divide will be able to be fixed at all. I feel that by bringing more attention and raising awareness, together as a society we will be able to lessen the gap.

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  9. Kaitlyn Shive says:

    Study 1
    A)What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    -The online participation divide is the divide between Internet users and the amount they contribute online and demographics and socioeconomic factors. Online participation can be identified between social networking sites, blogging, Wikipedia, and creative content. The divide looks at different genders, ages and demographic factors of the users who post or contribute to content frequently as opposed to users who do not. For example, women are more likely to post on Facebook than men are. Another example would be “Adults living in urban or suburban areas use SNS’s at a consistently higher rate than adults living in rural areas (Duggan et al. 2015)”.

    Study 2
    A) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    -Internet skills should be considered a vital resource in contemporary society because we are constantly growing as a digital world. The article states “because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should now be considered as vital assets”. Many companies, researches, news outlets etc. use the Internet to complete their day-to-day tasks and digital skills are of high importance to have in order to obtain and keep a job these days. New skills are constantly being required in today’s society especially in the digital world.

    B)Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article
    -The key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article are that lower level people that fail to have the proper Internet skills have a further disadvantage in life by being excluded from the benefits and offers access to the internet provides. Those with fewer Internet skills get persuaded in negative ways, which could lead to serious problems in life “if the lack of internet skills among large populations is not accounted for”

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  10. Jenna Berry says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples. The online participation divide is the gap between not only who has access to the internet and who doesn’t, but also who is contributing to the use of the internet and who is not. It is the concern of digital inequality, that inefficient usage is as crucial as unequal access. Age, gender, race, and socioeconomic status contribute to the participation divide because they are factors that determine how internet users are participating. For example, divides seem to be common throughout YouTube. Various topics such as, make-up, food, music, comedy, vlogs, diy, etc. are found amongst YouTube. There are divides among who makes and watches videos about which topics. I often see women ages (approximately) 16-25 posting make-up tutorials as opposed to men or younger woman. There are even divides within the topics. For example, in music you will see gender as a divide in the viewing and posting of different music videos or race as a divide in who views and posts different music videos.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society? Everything seems to be transforming digitally in form or another. Technology provides us with information, is convenient, and gives us access to better communication and so much more. Technology and the internet are taking over and being efficient in internet skills is essential to stay up to date with contemporary society. There are so many areas that internet is used such as in schooling, business transactions, banking, shopping, communicating, etc. that operational, formal, information, and strategic internet skills are required.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article? Their research looks further into digital divide and its focus on access to the internet and computers. They explored the wider gaps that are not addressed and studied the importance of digital and internet skills.

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  11. Michelle Zende says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    Hargittai and Jennrich state, “For the purposes of this piece, we consider online participation any type of online engagement whereby the user contributes content that others can access.” Therefore, the online participation divide is looking at different demographics and the separation between people who are actively using Internet and social networking sites through posting, sharing, and commenting, whereas, the other half is not being active on the sites. For example, on Facebook, my friends are constantly posting and sharing, while my grandmother only scrolls through to see what her family and friends have been up to.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    Internet skills should be considered a vital resource in contemporary society “because of the growing amount of information on the Internet and people’s increasing dependence on information” (p.1). Computers and the Internet are essential in today’s society because they are used almost everywhere for almost anything. People use the Internet at schools, homes, universities, workplaces, hospitals, or even for a GPS on the road. There are thousands of reasons for using the Internet and having the proper skills will make a person better accustomed to society, leaving them with better opportunities.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    In the article, they found that there are many factors that go into not having proper Internet skills, including the lack of resources, the environment they use the Internet in, certain demographics, and the most interesting one is Internet familiarity. This means people have access to the Internet but they do not know how to properly use it. This is another divide that has been created simply because people do not have the skills to use the Internet to their full advantage.

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  12. Ryan Struckel says:

    Study 1

    a)What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    The online participation divide is the gap between internet engagement differences among demographics. Adults have had a harder time adapting to social networks and internet usage, and the divide stems from them not wanting or being able to participate online. For example, the younger generation is going to post a lot more on social media than the older generation. They have grown up with the technology and have a greater understanding of how it works.

    Study 2

    a)Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    According to the reading, internet skills should be considered a vital resource “because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information” (p. 2). People and businesses worldwide have begun the switch to online technologies for convenience. Most retail stores have digital registers, even fast food restaurants and factory/machinery jobs, which have historically been manual, have switched over to computerized technology. If a person has no online skill-set, it will be very difficult for them to come across a career in this digital age in which we live in.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The key finding in this study is that the digital divide is evolving with the technology. As the spread of internet access grows, the possession of internet skills is still divided. “The results of the studies strongly indicate that large parts of the population will be excluded from actual and effective internet use” (p. 16). As access increases, businesses will need employees who know how to use the new technology, and those who have access but not an understanding are at a large disadvantage.

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  13. Adam Little says:

    1.

    a. The online participation divide is essentially the internet users who contribute to producing content, versus the people who just consume the content. Whether it be a blog, comment, or shared content, users who contribute to producing content are helping to create more rhetoric. This divide explains how we are using the internet as well as understanding where content is coming from and who is creating that content. Of course race, gender, and age all effect how we understand this divide. For instance the article talks about how men and women differ in the content they create/consume. Women fit the stereotypes of creating/consuming content that involves subjects like parenthood or home living, while men focus on fitness and politics. This is just one example, but it goes to show how we are all interested in different things when surfing the web. It’s easy to understand this divide because people either want to just sit back and watch, or get involved and have a goal of getting their opinions heard. One thing i found interesting in the reading is that people with a higher education tend to share or create more content than those who do not have a higher education. But from my experience this isn’t always true because a lot of my online friends who never got past high school are the ones with the “biggest mouths”. I tend to stay back and just watch because engaging with them isn’t always the smart thing to do unless you want some excitement from the drama that can occur. I think social media users are very eager to have their opinion heard, even myself, but over the course of a few years my interest in online interaction has diminished due to so many people wanting to voice their opinion. It is important to create, but it’s more important to know how to peacefully/progressively communicate. Best way to do that is to listen and educate yourself beforehand. You don’t need a college degree to be educated, but communication that involves debating and content sharing takes patience.

    2.

    a. Internet should be considered a vital resource in contemporary society because we depend on the internet for information. Information is a representation of power. If you don’t know how to use the internet then you will fall behind socially and even financially. For instance my father who is in the car business, has no idea how to use the internet (he’s 65 yrs old). He always asks me to post for him on craigslist even though it is one of the easiest websites to use in terms of selling and buying. It is very time consuming and tedious for me because for one it’s not my responsibility to post for him, and two it’s not hard at all. So this frustrates me. I told my dad that if he’s going to stay successful in the car business that he needs to take a class at the library on how to use the internet. The car business is all about customer interaction, and people go to craigslist to look for cars they want. If my dad doesn’t conform to this style of business then he will end up falling behind and lose money. The car business has completely changed due to the internet, just like many other businesses.

    b. One key point from the article is that the digital divide of not having internet access and updated technology has transformed into a divide of not having the skills to use the internet and using newer technology. Even though more and more people are gaining access, they lack in understanding of how to use the internet. They lack in how to gather credible information. Many internet users are easily influenced by the first things that they see, disregarding any information that competes with the original. For instance my friend always updates me on everything he sees on Facebook, but some of the information he’s telling me isn’t even real information, just something another user (just like us) has created. We are so eager to learn that we disregard credibility.

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  14. Emma Schoonmaker says:

    Study 1:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    The online participation divide, otherwise known as the “second-level digital divide,” identifies the gap in involvement between certain types of internet users, created by factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, location and more. For example, “adults living in urban or suburban areas use social networking sites at a consistently higher rate than adults living in rural areas,” (p. 202). This finding demonstrates the reality that those in urban areas not only have more access to technology, but also most likely have more of a reason to be involved on the Internet for networking reasons, traveling, or other. Additionally, “female adults post updates on Facebook more frequently than men,” which demonstrates the idea of a participation divide between men and women (p. 203). The online participation divide isn’t as much of a concern as the digital divide, but there are many facets to it to be explored and analyzed that can help us figure out why it exists.

    Study 2:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    Internet skills are a vital resource in our 21st century community for many reasons. People need to possess Internet skills not only to be able to function in the workplace but also to be able to network with others and join communities outside of work. The four types of Internet skills identified in the reading (operational, formal, information, and strategic) translate both into the workplace and into one’s personal life and their personal reasons for being a part of the online community (p. 3). Those who are unable or unwilling to acquire at least two of these types of Internet logic are likely to be considered worthless in the workplace, and disconnected in society.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    The main findings of the article are centered on the use of the Internet in the average Dutch household, as well as how this Internet use differs depending on socio-economic factors, gender, age, and more. One of their main findings was that their country has a “very high household internet penetration (93% in 2010),” which is likely similar to that of the US (p. 15). Additionally, they mentioned that knowledge about government systems and issues as they relate to technology only had a minor effect on one’s level of Internet knowledge. Another interesting finding was that access to information may be harder for those who speak languages other than English, which offers an explanation for both the digital divide and the participation divide. Lastly, Van Duersen and Van Dijk found that people today remain more comfortable with calling someone on the phone and completing a task the old-fashioned way as opposed to waiting for the Internet to complete it – something that may be true for the Dutch, but likely is not true for Americans as far as I can tell.

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  15. Sylvia Beckner says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    As stated, online participation can be online engagement in which the user can access that content. This can be dependent on whether it is user-generated or not, the platform where it was shared, the topic, the responses, and the level of publicity it holds. The divide can be established as the 15 percent of Americans who lack access to any form of online participation due to their socioeconomic status, age, and geography. The types of platforms that play a from in online participation include the following: blogging, social networking sites, photos, videos, wikipedia and other collaborative sites, and so on.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    In Hargittai & Jennrich (2016) article, roughly 15 percent of Americans do not have access to online participation. This means 85 percent of Americans have access to the internet and it is vital to have a minimal amount in 2017. We rely so much on the internet in today’s society and do not plan on looking back. It is important for the professional world to have information and strategic internet skills to access reliable research and sources.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?

    It is common sense that people who spend more time online will have better experience and knowledge on how to be internet savvy. The people who have used the internet longer, such as millennials and younger generations who grew up with technology, are expected to have higher online skills than those who do not. The Netherlands had a 93 percent internet usage in 2010, so chances are likely that percentage has increased in the last seven years. Communication skills were not accounted for in this study. That could have affected the results of the two studies.

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  16. Kirsten Cupach says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    According to the reading, the online participating divide “highlights differences in effective and efficient usage even once people gained Internet access.” In other words, just because someone has access to the Internet or ICTS does not necessarily mean he or she is participating online. “Participating” refers to “any type of online engagement whereby the user contributes content that others can access.” Online participating includes commenting, liking, posting, viewing, etc. The extent to which an individual participates can be measured by several different dimensions, including what platforms the individual engages on, how the individual expresses his or herself, the content topic, the level of publicness and distribution of the content, and the content’s audience. How or what an individual’s participates depends on several different factors that are mentioned in the reading, including gender and education level. For example, men are much more likely than women to have edited a Wikipedia article. This is problematic because as a result, most Wikipedia articles are biased in favor of men. An article about a prominent female scientist, for example, may include language such as “female scientist,” while an article about a male scientist would refer to the subject simply as a “scientist.”
    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    According to Duersen and Dijk “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should now be considered as vital assets”. Most of the world’s information can be found online, and without the necessary skills to access said information, people may find themselves without access to employment, education, government aid, healthcare, communication, music, television, and more. These are more difficult, if not impossible, to access without the proper skills to maneuver the Internet.
    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    In general, Van Duersen and Van Dijk reaffirmed the existence of what Hargittai and Jennrich referred to as the “online participatory divide.” While factors that contribute to one’s familiarity of the Internet vary, the online participatory divide exists across all age groups, gender categories, socioeconomic statuses, education levels, etc. The online participatory divide is rooted in structural and societal conceptions of the factors mentioned above.

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  17. Austin Lumpkin says:

    Study 1

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide can be described as the phenomena that occurs between people who post online and those who don’t post online. It also looks at how different types of people (i.e. gender, age, income) use different types of media as well as how they use this media. This can be displayed with the way my mom uses Facebook. She uses my sisters account to just ‘lurk’ on Facebook and never posts. This can be compared with the way I use Facebook, which is only when I need to communicate with someone that I don’t have access to in regards to texting, social media DMs, snapchat, etc.

    Study 2

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society.” The article states this and I believe that internet skills is a necessity because technology will only develop more and more over the years. Using the internet is an everyday thing for me due to social media, school, and even work.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The key findings in this article include the fact that technology is growing with or without us in terms of knowledge/skill. They are simply stating that even if people have a computer/internet that doesn’t necessarily mean they know how to use it to its full potential.

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    1. Krysti Finney says:

      Austin, I liked how you gave your own personal experiences to the readings. Such as how your mom uses social media vs. how you do. Are we really using the internet for an advantage or for just a time killer? Some actually take advantage of the usage of social media, vs others who don’t.

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  18. Kaitlyn Henry says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The reading mentions the variations of usage and explores what might influence what people do online in different areas and how these different people choose to share materials and opinions. It explains “it is this latter type of activity that is of central concern in this chapter. From blogs to wikis, from photo sharing to video uploads, who is most likely to put their contributions out there for their friends– or potentially the entire world– to see? (200) The chapter explores user-generated content on different sites to use as the basis for analysis about social behavior. There are extremely wide ranges of online participation around the world. There are those who do not have access at all, and then those who only have limited access, who may not be sharing ideas and opinions on the Internet because the limited time they have online, are used for school or work. Of the people who have unlimited access to the Internet, there is still a wide range of participation. There are those who use the Internet as their outlet and they post or blog every thought they have online for the world to see, and those who get on to simply be informed and read other peoples ideas and opinions. The possibilities of sharing ideas is endless and even those with unlimited access sometimes do not recognize al of the possibilities and don’t take advantage of all that is available to them.
    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    In the text, it is mentioned that “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society.” (1) The way that internet skills are used in everyday life make it vital for people to have internet skills in order to be successful members of society. We cannot simply look at those who have access to the internet and assume they are not part of the divide; without the needed skills to mnouver around the internet and get the information you need from it, people with access and no skills are falling behind just as much.
    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Duerson and Dijk explain that “The main contribution of this article is the measurement of an in-depth range of internet skills actually commanded by the Dutch population.” They test the skills of the population and introduce three general types of digital skills that are also applicable to Internet. “[Then Van Deursen and Van Dijk elaborated the range of skills to encourage research to focus on in-depth skill measurement and to support the achievements of digital divide research by proposing]:
    • Operational internet skills. These are derived from concepts that indicate a set of basic skills in using internet technology.
    • Formal internet skills. These relate to the hypermedia structure of the internet which requires the skills of navigation and orientation.
    • Information internet skills. These are derived from studies that adopt a staged approach in explaining the actions via which users try to fulfill their information needs.
    • Strategic internet skills. These are the capacity to use the internet as a means of reaching particular goals and for the general goal of improving one’s position in society. The emphasis lies on the procedure through which decision-makers can reach an optimal solution as efficiently as possible.
    (pg 3)

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  19. Joseph Weldon says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    Hargittai and Jennrich consider the online participation as “any type of online engagement whereby the user contributes content that others can access” (201). The divide of online participation is the difference in participation of populations among different groups of people (age, gender, race, social status, etc). An example of this divide is Facebook. The online participation divide of Facebook could be those that just have a Facebook and don’t post or update anything compared to those that participate by updating their profile, post statuses, pictures, and more.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    The first sentence under the abstract in the reading by Duersen and Dijk states “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society” (1). The increase in the importance of Internet skills relates directly to the increase in both the information on the Internet and people’s dependence on it. In today’s society, those with greater Internet skills are deemed more vital than those who are weak in that area.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The results of Dursen’s and Dijk’s studies indicate that large portions of the population will be excluded from internet use. These populations are less educated and may have been socially disadvantaged. In saying this, these populations are “increasingly excluded from all the benefits the internet now has to offer, ranging from economic opportunities such as privileged access to jobs, health opportunities such as better diets or improved exercise habits, or political opportunities such as online services and participation” (16-17). If action isn’t taken these populations, as well as future generations of these populations, will struggle to succeed in today’s increasingly internet dependent society.

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  20. Robert Dotson says:

    Study 1 (Magrittian & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    A) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is a term that most people use when they are trying to describe differences such as race, sex, and class uses digital media to access information. In a way this is an another way to bring up the digital divide but without have actual computers. In these day and times most of us are not really using home computers and that’s because of technology shifting over to smaller and portable things such as smart phones and tablets. If you really think about it using a portable device can take up less energy and money to use it. The generation that I’m apart of is in this divide and the reason I say that is because we are more likely to be on the internet more than the generation before us.
    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Question:
    A) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    While reading the reading I saw this quote that states “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society” (1p.). To my understanding I believe that this means having the skills of using the internet is very necessary in today’s society because it’s everywhere such as school, work, and to find basic information. So pretty much there is no way around the internet these days.
    B) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Duersen and Dijk key finding were to come up with some studies to show that the original divide has develop a second part of the divide. The second divide includes the differences in skill of using the internet. They also brought up the issue of “low level internet skills” because people who are that way has a disadvantage. So that means a lot people will be excluded from the good benefits from the internet because of the lack of skills that come from using the internet.

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  21. Evan Rose says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.

    The Online Participation Divide is the holistic view and proportion of how time online. It is evaluated by what demographics participate in online. For instance, how much teens spend on social media or percent of a demographic who view news online or even how much of a population is not online at all or rarely. This data allows for an image of data exposure and utilization of demographics.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?

    In our contempered society, Internet skills are vital resources. Van Deursen and Van Dijk state that “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society” (1). As today’s population and workforce become more invested in the internet and technology there is a correlation in the need for internet skills. The types of Internet skills as explained by Van Deursen and Van Dijk are operational internet skills or skills in internet usage, formal internet skills or internet navigation skills, information internet skills or internet need fulfillment skills, and strategic internet skills or internet decision making skills (3). While each profession or lifestyle might require different skills, each skill is important in the holistic Internet skills that are essential in today’s society in the modern world.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Van Duersen and Van Dijk found several different findings regarding Internet skills. One of the findings was that gender is not a significant contributor to Internet skill levels (13). Secondly, age has a negative correlation of Internet skill levels as in the older you are the less likely you will have a higher Internet skills of younger peoples (13). Another finding of the study was that level of educational attainment affects all four types of Internet skills in a positive correlation where the more education one had the higher skills levels that person is projected to have (13). There are many other positive correlations that the study found and the article states such as socio-economic status, level of social support, and level of at home internet use all have positive correlations to Internet skills (14). This article gave a good understanding of factors that affect Internet skills and what the averages where for matching populations in particular demographics.

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  22. Stefano Minale says:

    Study 1 (Magrittian & Jennrich, 2016) Question 1:

    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is the study between the inequality of people that have access to the internet and contribute to posting blogs, news articles, tweets, status updates, etc. compared to those that have access to online sources and choose not to actively participate. When categorizing the online participation divide, Margrittian & Jennrich state (201) “For the purposes of this piece, we consider online participation any type
    of online engagement whereby the user contributes content that others
    can access (see also Hoffman et al. 2015, 696). People’s online content
    sharing can be analyzed on several dimensions including: (a) the platform
    on which they are sharing material (e.g., social network sites, video sites,
    news sites, personal blogs, wikis); (b) their forms of expression (e.g., posts,
    images, comments, links, up-votes); (c) content topic (e.g., art, politics,
    sports, social causes, health); (d) the level of public-ness and distribution
    (e.g., a private mailing list, a closed group on a social platform, a forum
    that requires registration, a blog where anyone can comment, a wiki open
    to editing and viewing by all); and (e) the type of community and main
    audience (e.g., family, friends who share a hobby, colleagues, fans of a
    particular topic, the world).” There is a wide range of people who actively participate online who have the ability to access the internet on smart phones compared to those who have limited of time to access it. People who have the ability to be online 24/7 may be scrolling around looking to always share, tweet, comment on something that they see intrigues them. “With socio-economic status increasing, people show a higher level of internet skills.
    People forced to use the internet at school or in libraries have less time to practice
    which might result in a restriction of their internet skills” (Van Dursen & Van Dijk, 7) People who have limited amount of time don’t always look to share opinions, tweet, etc if they have limited amounts of time, so they have to get what they needed to get done for the time they had. User-generated content has become the biggest thing in today’s society. Social networks have become the most used websites on the internet and people off the street creating their own content have been making hundreds of thousands of millions of dollars being discovered from their user-generated content & social media sites.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:

    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    “Because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing
    dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in
    contemporary society.” As the years progress, people begin to develop technology and internet skills at younger ages. Developing internet skills is vital for everyone in todays world because it is never going anywhere. We rely on the access of internet to have successful minds and gather data that is accessible to us when working out real world equations/problems. Everything is relatively run online, I pay my rent online, cell phone bill, internet bill, car payments, healthcare, etc. Measurement of the digital divides online internet skills that Van Duersen and Van Dijk explain are Operational, Strategic, Informative, and Formal.

    B) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The key findings that I found in this article is that if you have the ability to have a higher internet skill rate you will have the ability to achieve a higher level of education. They have excluded from the benefits that the internet offers to people and get left behind. Getting jobs in todays market is very competitive and if you don’t have a solid technological and online skill background the chances of your success rate getting those times of jobs are slim to none.

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  23. Chad Gerzeny says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide is essentially a “second level digital divide” which highlights the differences in effective and efficient usage even once people gained Internet access. Many different variables are taken into consideration when determining the severity of the online participation divides. Things such as quality of Internet connectivity, the frequency of one’s use, one’s autonomy in going online etc. SSN’s such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram are some of the most visited websites to date and the data from such sites is often so widely available to the public, that many studies have been performed using user data. Adults living in urban or suburban areas are using SSN’s at a consistently higher rate than adults living in rural areas. Studies show that many different socioeconomic factors are playing a role in the demographic usage of SSN’s.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    The article states “because of the growing amount of information on the internet and people’s increasing dependence on information, internet skills should be considered as a vital resource in contemporary society.” The article mentions that a person’s Internet skills are specifically operational, formal, informational, and strategic are essential for proper operation within the Internet environment. Contemporary society is so influenced by technology and Internet, that the strength of a person’s internet skills is crucial to his/her success in society.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    Key findings from the article explain the importance of Internet skills especially in today’s contemportaty society, however, simply because one has access to technology does not mean we are able to maximize its full capacities. Because technology continues to grow and divide, we need to ensure we are properly working to stay up to date and continue to develop our internet skills in order to keep pace with technological growth.

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  24. Wendy Weyers says:

    Study 1 (Hargittai & Jennrich, 2016) Question:
    a) What is the online participation divide? Explain with the help of examples.
    The online participation divide explains how different people use the Internet differently. Even if everyone has access to the Internet, they use the Internet differently and some are not even present online. There are different demographics that use the Internet for different things and this is an issue because the Internet is supposed to be a place where everyone can voice their opinions and thoughts. Some example of this divide is that different demographics use different social media sites and there are less people from rural areas who have a social media account compared to people from urban areas. There are also divides in the content that users post and create. Both men and women create blogs equally but “there are considerable divides in who engages with what type of content.” (p. 203) There are many divides like this among different content and demographics and all of these make up the online participation divide.

    Study 2 (Van Duersen & Van Dijk, 2011) Questions:
    a) Why should Internet skills be considered a vital resource in contemporary society?
    Internet skills should be considered a vital resource because the Internet allows people to have access to all of the information online, in our society we need a way to get information about many different topics including politics in order to fulfill our parts in society easier. As the authors say “If people with low levels of internet skills fail to find information online while an increasing amount relevant to daily life become easiest to access on the internet, they become increasingly disadvantaged.” (p. 16) Because a high population uses the Internet for everyday needs there are those who will get left behind in their personal lives and the workplace because of their lack of skills.

    b) Explain the key findings of the Van Duersen and Van Dijk article?
    The key findings of this article are that in The Netherlands, with 93% household internet penetration, there is a divide between people who have internet skills and those who don’t. This research shows that mostly everyone had basic internet skills but not everyone could do the complex tasks. Their studies show that there is still a digital divide that is different from who has access and who doesn’t, this digital divide is about the skills that someone has to have to be able to use the internet successfully.

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