Media and the Digital Divide

MDIA 4011, Scripps College of Communication, Ohio University

Week 3 – Global Digital Divide and New Media Influence

 

Transforming People’s Lives: Mobile Money in Kenya: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_kOjg1eqNis

This week’s articles are as follows:

  1. Chinn, M. D., & Fairlie, R. W. (2006). The determinants of the global digital divide: a cross-country analysis of computer and internet penetration. Oxford Economic Papers.
  2. Correa, T. (2016). Digital skills and social media use: how Internet skills are related to different types of Facebook use among ‘digital natives’. Information, Communication & Society, 19(8), 1095-1107.

Responses to these questions are due by 9:00 pm, Thursday.

Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

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32 comments on “Week 3 – Global Digital Divide and New Media Influence

  1. Emma Schoonmaker says:

    Study 1:

    (1) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    Along with many others, an individual’s income is one of the main factors that is responsible for the digital divide. Individual incomes in a certain area reflect on the per capita income, which in turn reflects on that area’s access to technology. When a given area does not have enough money to fund technological advances, citizens of said area suffer from a lack of knowledge and information, and get caught in the unfavorable end of the digital divide. According to Chinn & Fairline, “each $1,000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita,” (pg. 27). As displayed in the above statistic, per capita income directly correlates with access to technology.

    (2) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    According to the study, yes, differences in regulatory quality are in fact responsible for gaps in technology use. “Differences in regulatory quality explain 11.7% of the gap between Europe/Central Asia and the United States and 18.2 to 32.0% of the gap between other regions and the United States,” (Chinn & Fairline, pg. 39). Ultimately, this data shows that the role of regulation is negative in terms of the digital divide. When a government system imposes excessive policies and controls on technology use, citizens of that government are less likely to want to explore and take advantage of technology in the way that it is meant to be utilized. People who are in fear of the regulations put in place by their superiors will never be able to harness the power of technology or make leaps and bounds over the confines of the digital divide.

    Study 2:

    (1) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear.” What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    I agree with this statement. To me, it reflects the idea that technology is ever changing and humans must adapt and evolve with it in order to stay afloat in our digital world. Those who are separated by the digital divide today because of inequalities are likely the same people who were separated when the computer was first invented. Differences in income, location, and other demographic factors reflect a disparity that we may never be able to mend. This is the case because, as a result of these factors, access to technology will never be equal in all parts of the world. For example, people who are not college educated will be far less equipped with digital skills to put forth in the real world than someone who is college educated. Additionally, someone from an impoverished nation is much less likely to have extensive digital knowledge than someone from the United States.

    (2) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?
    As a young person, I do believe that we have more advanced technological knowledge than our parents and grandparents. We were born into the age of technology, not before it – therefore, social media and cell phones are things that we grew up with, rather than things that we had to learn how to utilize at a more developed age. As a woman, I do not agree with the stereotype that males have more digital skills than females. According to Correa, “people have been socialized with the idea that technology is a male domain and that higher levels of education imply greater opportunities of Internet experience and more cognitive resources,” (pg. 1103). However, as women continue to shatter the glass ceiling in all aspects of the professional world, I believe that females are equal to men in terms of digital skillsets.

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    1. Ryan Struckel says:

      Emma,

      I agree with you when you say “…I do not agree with the stereotype that males have more digital skills than females.” As a male, I know many females who have a much better understanding of technology and digital interactions than I do. We (as millennials) have all grown up with the technology and, depending on geographical location and income, men and women have had very similar opportunities to utilize it. Unlike in the past, women are not expected to sit at home and do the cooking and the cleaning. They are out succeeding in nearly every industry, the media industries included. As you said, women are shattering the glass ceiling, and I see no reason to assume that gender affects the digital skillset of a population.

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  2. Bailey Castillo says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    The text states that “unsurprisingly, income per capita comes in as a powerful determinant of PC use; each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita” (p. 27). The text goes further to explain “the income gap is likely affecting computer penetration by way of the cost relative to income” (p. 36). In other words, our computers may cost the same as they do in other countries, however, our average annual income is much higher than that of other developing countries. Therefore, although they are the same price, when compared with the drastic differences in income, it’s more of a percentage of another country’s salary. As a result, per capita income becomes “the largest contributing factor to the global digital divide” (p. 36).

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Chinn and Fairline state that “regional differences in regulatory quality appear to contribute greatly to the global digital divide” (p. 38). The study found that “regulation has a negative net effect on technology adoption, partially explaining why many developing countries have low computer penetration rates” (p. 38). Unfortunately, without proper regulations, many Middle Eastern and North African countries are left on the other side of the global gap. The text explains this by stating “our estimates suggest that nearly one-third of the Internet penetration rate gap might be closed if countries in the the Middle East and North Africa had similar regulatory quality as the United States” (p. 41). If regulations were similar across the globe, we would be able to close more of the global gap in technology use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    This statement tells us that although there are inequalities evolving and people are gaining access to the internet, the inequalities exist still, but in different ways. The text explains this by saying “having basic access is different from taking full advantage of the opportunities and content provided by the Web” (p. 1096). In other words, a country that didn’t have previous internet connection may have just recently received universal internet access across their community. Although this is a step forward, this community more than likely is not aware and does not possess the skills required to use the internet functionally. Another example of this could be someone just recently gaining access to a computer. They may now have a computer, but they need to learn the skills of surfing the web, using basic programs like Microsoft word, etc.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    The text states that the results of their study “found that men and more educated young people had higher levels of skills, confirming the so-called ‘digital natives’ are not a monolithic group” (p.1095). Young people are almost universally connected which means that they hold higher levels of digital skills. Young people are so connected because they had grown up at a time where technology was becoming more popular. This means that they are more likely to have access to technology because of the popularity which would result in them using it more often and developing the skills associated with the digital world.

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  3. Kara Dierkes says:

    Study 1
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Income is an important factor to showing the global gap in the use of technology. One’s income affects what kind of technology they can afford, which in turn affects the amount of information they can access on the Internet. When you look at an area of individual’s incomes, that creates an income per capita. In areas that have lower incomes, technology seems even more expensive because they have much less income (money to spend). Per capita income explains the global gap by providing reason for how many areas are not able to purchase computers due to their area’s income.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    In the reading, China and Fairline state that regulations are affecting the use of the Internet in a negative way. So, this means that differences in regulatory quality are responsible for gaps in technology use. The reading also goes on to say that, “Regional differences in regulatory quality appear to contribute greatly to the global digital divide. These differences explain roughly 10% of the gap in computer penetration rates for most regions.” (pg. 38)

    Study 2
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    My understanding of this statement is that even though digital inequalities can change, sometimes for the better and other times for the worse, they are never completely erased, meaning there is always going to be someone who cannot take full advantage of the technology at hand. This happens because having technology takes money, and to get money you need to work, and to work you need to have time away from family, etc. This kind of chain reaction is in effect in many places all around the world and there is never an easy fix.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    The Correa reading states that “There is evidence that suggests significant gender differences, in which males have greater Internet skills than women. Finally, the skills differences by socioeconomic status are consistent: groups with higher levels of education and/or income are more digitally skillful than those with lower levels of education and/or income” (pg. 1097). I believe this has everything to do with access because males are more likely to have a career that pays for technology, and educated young people are more likely to require technology and know how to use it for their schooling and future endeavors.

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  4. Jarad says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    The amount of income and computer exposure have a direct correlation. The more one’s income increases as does the amount of internet penetration they are exposed too. As stated on pg. 18 “the income per capita differential accounts for the single most important component of the digital divide.” The global gap is made more significant due to the large amounts of poverty seen in developing countries. Thusly the digital divide can be seen more often where not only are the citizens poor, so too are the communities in which they live and are unable to support infrastructure for internet access.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation plays a role in the digital divide by making internet penetration more difficult in countries with more regulation when compared to those that do not. “Regional differences in regulatory quality appear to contribute greatly to the global digital divide. These differences explain roughly 10% of the gap in computer penetration rates for most regions”. (pg. 38) The differences in regulation are without a doubt responsible for some of the gaps in technology use. While it is not the only thing that contributes to the digital divide it is a large contributing factor.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    I understand this statement to mean that as technology becomes more affordable, available, and prominent, people still may not require the means or skills to access it. For example we as college students on an online class are going to be more skilled when it comes to computer access than one who perhaps opted for a technical trade and uses computers very little. We will be more likely to know how to research things on our own and give presentations to inform others, where as the trade worker may not have a clue on how to do anything in this nature other than look things up on wikipedia and share it on facebook.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    According to the text “The results found that men and more educated young
    people had higher levels of skills, confirming that the so-called
    ‘digital natives’ are not a monolithic group.” (pg. 1095) They also mention that “There is
    also evidence that suggests significant gender differences, in which males have greater
    Internet skills than women (Wasserman & Richmond-Abbott, 2005).” (pg. 1097) Young educated individuals were found to have a higher skill set but this should come as no surprise. While we enter the workforce and learn a particular system and our skill set becomes stagnant while we forget the skills that we do not need. Where a young person will develop more and more skills to make him more verse in the world so that he can find his place in this cycle.

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  5. Emily Bohatch says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    Income per capita is the most important factor in the digital divide. In relatively well off countries, the number of personal computers owned per 100 people is relatively high; in 2001, the ten of the top 11 countries with the highest rate of computer ownership come from countries with stable economies that are considered rich. The lowest computer ownership slots from the studies come from subsaharan countries, which are relatively poor.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Regulation negatively affects internet use, which is evident when comparing countries that place a high value and many protections on freedom of speech to countries who do not share those values. It is estimated that nearly a third of the gap between US computer/internet usage and Middle East usage is contributed to regulations. Those gaps may close if areas with strict regulation adopted similar rules to the U.S.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    To me, this statement indicates that digital inequalities crop up in every country no matter its state of development, and those inequalities tend to remain no matter the situation applied to them. In highly developed countries, those with lower incomes tend to spend more time in the internet, most of which is devoted to gaming and social activities such as Facebook. Middle and Upper classes tend to spend less time on the web, but spend more time doing activities that require more digital skills and focus on capital enhancing activities. The same examples could be applied to less developed countries, such as Chile, where interaction with social media is high, but digital skills themselves are low.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    Though studies are largely inconclusive about the differences between men and women’s digital skills, it has been found that women have a lower perceived level of digital skills. While young people are considered digital natives, studies have found that there is a correlation between education and digital skills. Those with higher educations tend to be able to better navigate the internet and utilize it to solve problems.

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  6. Ryan Struckel says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a)How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Per capita income is one of the leading causes in the global gap. If the regional area does not have the money to fund technological advances, there will not be any computers or internet use available. “Recent research on the determinants of computer ownership using microdata also finds strong relationships between computer ownership, and income and education” (27). Schools are the only place that most people who live in areas lacking technology can access the internet. However, schools can only afford those technologies if the per capita for the area is high enough to be able to afford it.

    b)What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation can be a very big factor when choosing to participate in the online world. While in the United States, we have free speech and relatively low regulation compared to other countries, people from other places may not find the Internet to be as worthwhile as we do. “Differences in regulatory quality explain 11.7% of the gap between Europe/Central Asia and the United States and 18.2 to 32.0% of the gap between other regions and the United States” (39). People in countries with high regulations are afraid of the government and do not want to risk the consequences of posting or searching for something they shouldn’t.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a)“Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    I agree with this statement. While technology and worldwide access is evolving and growing, this does not mean that the inequalities are disappearing. “…research on the digital divide has moved from differences between connected and disconnected people to pay attention to different aspects of the digital inclusion process, including skills and differentiated usage of the Web” (1096). While more people have access to the internet, not everyone is using it to its full potential. Many people do not know how to use it completely.

    b)Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    According to the text, “…this investigation found that men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills” (1102). People with lower levels of education engage in less skillful uses of the internet. This is because they are not taught how to use the technology, or how to engage in thinking about uses of the technology. The less education a person has, the more black and white they are going to think, especially about topics that they do not understand. Millennials who grew up with the internet are constantly connected, and masters of using the world-wide web. I believe that this generation will continue to grow with the internet and expand on its vast vault of endless information.

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  7. Michelle Zende says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    The text mentions that, “Research using microdata from other countries suggests that income and education are important determinants of computer ownership and Internet use, and thus may contribute to digital divides within those countries” (p. 18). The text also performed studies that compared the cost of telephones, electricity, and computers among different countries and proved that income directly relates with access to technology and Internet.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    The article states, “the most notable difference between the results for the Internet penetration rate gaps and those for the computer penetration rate gaps is the substantially larger magnitude of contributions from regional differences in regulatory” (p. 39). Many countries such as ones in the Middle East and North Africa do not have proper regulations therefore creating a gap in technology use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    This statement is true because it is declaring that technology is always changing and there are individuals who are not able to access new technologies, making them a part of the digital divide. This is the case for many people for different reasons, including factors such as income, geographical locations, or proper digital skills. For example, if a person cannot afford a computer then they have less access to the Internet. Also, there are regions in certain countries that do not have access to Internet connection and even if they do, most citizens do not have the proper knowledge to use the web, applications, or software correctly.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    The text states, “Because digital inequalities mirror structural social inequalities (Helsper, 2012), young people also show differences by gender and education in digital media mastery” (p. 1098). I do agree young people are more educated when it comes to digital skills because we grew up in the digital age. We have had access to cell phones, computers, and Internet for years, which has allowed us to gain higher levels of digital skills as we grow. As for men having higher levels of digital skills, I can understand how that may have been the case in the past because men were the first to receive higher education in general so it seems they would have access to technology first. However, in today’s society I believe women are becoming equally as educated as men because we have the same access.

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    1. Krysti Finney says:

      Hello Michelle,

      Good read. I appreciate your opinion on how young educated individuals have higher levels of digital skills. I also agree since we were born and raised in a society with a growing digital divide. We were the generation that accepted all terms of technology and utilized each necessary form. By this, we are more likely to be better at using technology.

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  8. Kaitlyn Shive says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a)How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    –Per capita income explains the global gap in computer and Internet use because it is a “powerful determinant” of PC use. It was said in the text “each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one-percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita”. A person’s education also plays a factor in the explanation of per capita income because however well a person’s education is results in the amount of income they receive from jobs etc. With this the persons with education and income have better access to computers and Internet use. The text also said “income, telecommunications infrastructure and costs, and regulatory quality may be especially important determinants of Internet use” Demographics play a role as well when it comes to income, not every country is able to afford computers or internet access which aids in creating the global gap.

    b] What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    –Regulation plays a huge role in the global gap in technology use. It was said in the article “the differences explain roughly 10% of penetration rates for most regions”. Where in places like North Africa and the Middle East it is 15%, this is compared to United States, Europe and Central Asia accounting for only 4.7% of the gap. These regions are so different percentage wise for regulations that it represents a negative affect on technology use. If regulatory quality was equal among all regions it would be one step closer to closing the global gap of technology and internet use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a)“Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    –When seeing this statement, I cannot help but agree with it. I believe it means that digital inequalities evolve as technology and access to technology evolves but the inequality part always remains. The text says, “having basic access is different from taking full advantage of the opportunities and content provided by the Web.” I couldn’t agree with this more. It is saying that when technological aspects evolve in a region it is not closing the digital divide, it is just giving more access to regions that did not previously have it but the inequality is still there because these regions are still at a disadvantage because of their demographics and actual ability to use the new technology. Inequality does not disappear; It grows as technology grows.

    b] Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    –I believe that more educated young people have a higher level of digital skills. The text states that “young people are almost universally connected and show greater levels of skills to the point that they have been named ‘digital natives’”. I do agree with this because millennial’s are growing up in a time where technology and social media is thriving and at its peak, they are aware of social media and are associated with apps and how to use them. I definitely think the part about men having higher levels of digital skills is questionable, I think men and women are equally capable of having the same digital skill level. The more education part reigns true though, because education is the tell-all for doing anything, you need to be educated to properly use and access technology. Those not educated well are at a disadvantage socially because they don’t have the correct or proper knowledge of the digital world.

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    1. Robert Dotson says:

      Kaitlyn, I agree with you %100 on how millennials are the most intelligent when it comes to technology and that’s because they never been in a time where they did not have the internet. I also agree that men and women are when it comes to this as well because education on technology does not matter when it come to gender.

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  9. Michael Mack says:

    A.) Study 1
    How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Per capital income gives you an over view of the differences in income based on countries. This difference in income has a lot to do with the digital gap. It all comes down to a person’s income and when you’re in a certain area or country it affects the per capita income. In the article it said that, “income gap is likely affecting computer penetration” (pg.22). They simply look at the way of the cost relative to income, so for instance a computer that is $1800 in Ethiopia would be half of a person’s average income there.

    b.) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    In the reading it talks about how regulatory quality has a lot to do with the digital divide. In areas like the middle east and north Africa Regulatory quality is about 15% of the gap in computer penetration. Like the article says, “32.0% of the US-MiddleEast/North Africa Internet gap is associated with the difference in regulatory” (pg.41) There is a negative side to this when it comes to technology adoption and it’s the reason some country have lower penetration rates.

    Study 2

    a.)“Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case?

    I believe the statement makes sense being that technology continues to evolve and spread throughout a population and it’s important for people to stay with it. We live in a world where technology also spreads so that means you’re going to run into folks with access and folks without access. This statement also recognizes that there are tons of people who are separated by this divide because of the inequalities like income, class, area etc.

    b.) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    This is one of those questions where I believe it can be either or in terms of who has higher digital skills. I believe my generation both educated men and women holds these digital skills being that we were brought up in a tech savvy society. I’m 24 years old and I was involved in technology but not as much as the younger generation today. The children today are more technically advanced (2004+) with all of these apps, ipads, tablets, etc. Obviously those who are educated well have far more skills then those who aren’t hipped or just don’t have that access.

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  10. Jenna Berry says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use? Per capita income is the largest of the contributing factors to the global gap in computer and internet use. Regions that have lower computer and internet use than the U.S. also have access to a lower amount of information and understanding of the technology. For those regions, 50% percent of the gap is explained by differences in their income. For example, Sub-Saharan Africa’s per capita income is $3,077 in comparison to the U.S. at $33,645. Other regions have an average even lower than that of Sub-Saharan Africa. The article provided the example of how a computer costing $1,500 can exceed half of a person’s average annual income. Per capita income explains the global gap in computer and internet use because those with lower average incomes are unable to purchase or have access to proper resources.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use? Regulatory quality definitely plays a role. Differences in regulatory quality explain 10-15% of the gap in computer and internet use in most regions, compared to the U.S. at 4.7%. Regulation causes most countries to lack in technology adoption, leading to lack of computer and internet use. Europe and Central Asia have regulatory quality is similar to the U.S. and are not limited or experience such a gap in technology use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples. I think this statement is saying that with digital issues, specifically digital inequality, there has been progress made in certain regions, but they will always be a step behind due to continuing technology advancements in other regions. Regions with a higher average income have access to digital advancements and other regions lack in that area. For example, social media is huge in the U.S. and allows us to connect to people locally and globally and share information. Some developing countries only have access and knowledge to operate basic cell phones and must pay for charging stations, etc. This deprives them from the information shared and connections made through social media and other technologies.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills? I believe educated young people have higher levels of digital skills. I also believe the higher the education, the more skills you seem to have. Education continues to evolve with the use of technology and is essentially replacing other forms of teaching and learning. Most young people have grown up in a society that has always involved technology and having at least basic digital skills is essential. As the education system grows and you increase your education level, you are introduced to more and more skills. As for gender, I believe studies could show men to have higher levels of digital skills. However, I personally believe this is not true. In the past, the majority of men had jobs that required digital skills as opposed to the skills required for a “housewife”, but I do not believe that divide in skills is relevant today.

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    1. Michael Mack says:

      Yes I agree with you on the gender part yea back in the day when men were the only one going to school and had an advantage to get higher education but today its far more equal than anything.

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    2. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

      In regards to the second question under study two, I like your response. When answering this question before, I did not even think about education. It is true that technology is replacing many forms of teaching, which (at the same time) is teaching children how to be efficient with technology. I still do think, though, that our generation and all after ours, are being born into technology. They are learning how to use phones and computers at such young ages, and it is giving them a leg up with digital skills.

      I also completely agree with you when it comes to gender. How frustrating is it that technology is seemed to be male dominant in today’s society? Men and women are at a very similar and equal standing when it comes to technology, in my opinion.

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  11. Austin Wolfe says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    Income per capita is “an index of competition policy” (pg 19) is “likely to be a key determinant of the customer demand for computers” (pg 26). The use of computers as the technology works because it looks at budgets, importance, and brand. “This may also be related to a person’s education level, age, presence of children and urban/rural location” (PG 26) which shows that information is gathered to try to have a better understand on the gap other than money.
    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    The study shows that differences in regulation are responsible for gaps. “a personal computer costing $1500 represents half of a personas average annual income in sub-Saharan Africa…) (PG 36) If technology being used was adjusted to be affordable for the areas being marketed the gap could start to close due to availability.
    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    This statement is referring to tech savvy people who have used internet for everything, and how people who are just gaining access might not be aware of everything they can use it for. If someone finally is able to purchase a computer at their home and search online for anything and everything they might not know how to determine credible resources versus parodies. Currently, I would say most of the younger generations are okay even without a personal computer/tablet because schools are making them easily accessible by allowing students to rent them for projects or working to fund a personal tablet for each student so they can do assignments on apps. (This was a firsthand experience at my high school where we surveyed and presented information for funding and is currently still at use.)
    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    The research from the text “found that men and more educated young people had higher levels of skills, confirming the so-called ‘digital natives’ are not a monolithic group” (p.1095). So although “men and educated young people” seemingly have higher levels of digital skills, it would seem that if that gap still remains currently it is closing quickly. Younger generations of both sexes are using technology for everything, looking around in public children either have their own phone to play with, or are using their parents with no issues.

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  12. Kaitlyn Henry says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    Per capita income plays a big part in the global gap in computer and internet use. The text even explains that “use. Unsurprisingly, income per capita comes in as a powerful determinant of PC use; each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita.” (27) It then explains how tion.17 The positive relationship between per capita income and computer penetration rates may be partly due to relaxing the budget constraint, changing preferences, or liquidity constraints.” (27) Lastly it talks about how the “The income gap is likely affecting computer penetration by way of the cost relative to income.” Because the cost of a computer is around half or even more than half of some people average annual income in other countries.
    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    The text talks about the negative impact of regulation saying “Interestingly, the negative effect of regulations on Internet penetration (i.e. positive coefficient estimate on regulatory quality) is substantially larger than its effect on computer penetration.” 30 It later mentions this negative effect again saying “Apparently, regulation has a negative net effect on technology adoption, partially explaining why many developing countries have low computer penetration rates, which is broadly consistent with the findings in Caselli and Coleman (2001). (38) Lastly, the text mentions the general negative affect of regulation on page 39 saying “Again, these findings are consistent with those of Wallsten (2005) and suggest that regulation overall negatively affects Internet use.”

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    When I first read this statement, what comes to mind is the constant struggle to catch up. Over times the severity of the digital inequalities may evolve, but not fast enough to keep up with the rest of the digital world as it evolves. When reading the text, the statement was explained saying it is “because having basic access is different from taking full advantage of the opportunities and content provided by the Web.” This is all too real when you look at the massive gaps around the world. Those of us who are fortunate enough to have access to information technology at our fingertips whenever we want, are able to learn and grow with it as it changes and we will adapt and grow with it, while those who have limited or no access will continue to fall further and further behind.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    The reading doesn’t give a clear answer to the gender relevance to web skills, but what it des say is “The evidence about gender is mixed. While a few studies have found that gender is not related to web skills (Bunz, 2009; van Deursen & van Dijk, 2010), other investigations have revealed a more complex scenario, in which men and women do not differ greatly in their skills, although females have lower perceived competences, which may affect their online behavior (Hargittai & Shafer, 2006). There is also evidence that suggests significant gender differences, in which males have greater Internet skills than women (Wasserman & Richmond-Abbott, 2005).” (1097) Age however, does have a significant relevance to web skills. The reading states that “Hargittai (2002) has found that age is negatively associated with people’s level of online skill, while van Deursen and van Dijk (2010) found that age was negatively related only to operational and formal skills” Personally, I notice a negative relationship between age and web skills. Generations before my own tend to fall behind as technology progresses.

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  13. Krysti Finney says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    There is no doubt that there is a difference in per capita income across the globe nor would it be surprising to find out that the more income a household aquires, the more demand and access to internet a family is going to have. According to Chinn & Fairline, “Income is the key determinant of the consumer demand for computers,” (pg. 26). The usage of internet is based on first, having a computer and or phone, and secondly having wifi to properly use the internet. If here in the United States our annual income is higher than those in other countries, our chance of having either a computer or phone is way more likely. Countries which have a lower annual income may see computer and internet use as a desired want, but cannot necessarily purchase these items due to income. With this being said, income plays a huge role in the digital divide our society is faced with today.
    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Chinn and Fairline explained how, “Differences in regulatory quality generally account for large portions of the gaps in technology use,” (pg. 41). The more regulation the less internet use occurred. If the government controls how much internet is being offered in an area, it would set the stage for the potential use of technology or lack there of. Chin and Fairline believe if other countries could follow our regulation the global gap of technology could be eliminated. “Our estimates suggest that nearly one-third of the Internet penetration rate gap might be closed if countries in the Middle East and North Africa had similar regulatory quality as the United States” (p. 41).
    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    I understand this statement to mean that inequalities are here and are not going anywhere. Inequalities include and are not limited to gender, race, education, or class. In this class we’ve read multiple articles that prove how money plays a factor in internet access and use. Another factor is education, if you give someone a computer it is not accurate to assume that person will be able to understand and figure out how to use it. According to Correa, “Access gaps are closing in many developed countries, skill gaps are opening,” (pg. 1097). After researching and testing Correa stated she was able to confirm the idea that digital inequalities reproduce structural inequalities in which lower educated people consume less information, read fewer news, and have lower levels of participation in terms of mobilization and recruitment,(pg.1104).

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?
    I don’t believe that men and educated people are better internet users. According to Wasserman and Richmond, “ Males have greater internet skills than women,” (pg. 1097). In Correa’s article she could not prove this to be true and found that both men and women are equal in digital skills. I am hopeful that one day we will live in a world where females and males are not compared as equal versus inequal but as individuals who contribute to society.
    According to Correa, “People with higher level of education have had more training, practice, and prior knowledge that increase the ability to learn, integrate, and recall information and news,” (pg. 1104). I feel that those who strive to learn do regardless of what type of background.

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  14. Cree Daniels says:

    Study 1:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Income has always been a huge factor in any kind of divide between regions and the digital divide is not exception. An individual’s income reflects on the per capita income or their area, which then affects the areas ability to access technology. Citizens who do not have the means to be ‘technologically advanced’ suffer from a lack of knowledge and education compared to citizens in an area with high per capita income. Although the per capita income varies, sometimes drastically, between different areas, technology remains the same on a price scale which doesn’t provide any help or alternatives to people in areas with low per capita income. Chin and Fairline state, “Income is likely to be a key determinant of the consumer demand for computers. It has an effect on consumers’ budget constraints, and it may also affect preferences.”

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    “Regulation has a negative effect on technology adoption which partially explains why developing countries have low computer penetration rates.” Throughout the article, Chinn and Fairline discuss the difference that regulation has on internet penetration and computer penetration regarding price regulation and burden it has on firms and inefficiently implemented regulations. Chinn and Fairline state, “The quality of regulation is of great importance. Differences in regulatory quality generally account for large portions of the gaps in technology use. In other words, our estimates suggest that nearly one-third of the Internet penetration rate gap might be closed if countries in the Middle East and North Africa had similar regulatory quality as the United States.”

    Study 2
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    To me this statement means that although digital inequalities change and improve, they are and will always remain. Typically, I believe this statement to be true but this article seems to argue otherwise. Early on in the article Correa discussed that millennials are considered to be experts when it comes to technology, but that isn’t always the case. She states “research is consistently finding that they are not a monolithic group with universal talent to use digital media, In fact, their engagement with digital technology is varied and there are differences by gender and socioeconomic status on more skillful internet activities. She then delves into studies that show people in underdeveloped countries with fewer resources penetrating the internet and computer use; even more so than those of higher social class than them.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    According to Correa, evidence on gender is mixed. On one hand, studies show that men and women do not differ greatly in their skills, although females have lower perceived competences which can lead to an effect on their online behavior. On the other hand, there is evidence that suggests significant gender differences weighing towards men. In relation to educated young people, Correa states “Although young people are almost universally connected and show greater levels of skills to the point that they have been named ‘digital natives’ or ‘net generation,’ research has found that they are not a monolithic group with innate talent to use new technologies” Overall, studies have shown that men and educated young people have higher levels of digital skills.

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  15. Sylvia Beckner says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    – The higher the per capita income in a country, the more likely that country will have access to internet use and computers. For example, in North America, per 100 people, 61.1 have computers compared to Sub-Sarahan Africa which only has 1.0 computers per 100 people (pp. 22). That is a striking difference between the two countries due to the per capita income. Not many people in developing countries can afford computers, making it difficult for them to access the internet, though they view computers to be versatile, their average income tells them otherwise.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    – The negative effects of internet penetration regulations are larger than its effect on computer penetration (pp. 30). It also is stated that it has an attenuated impact – the coefficient estimate has declined from 6.2 to 2.7 due to the policies of trade openness (p. 32).

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    – Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear because technology is constantly evolving too. We cannot keep up with everything that advances in technology, especially as we age. The article mentions that the current generation has helped older generations adapt to technology, however that will keep repeating with upcoming generations. Pretty soon our kids will show our parents the newest buzz and it continues to go on.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    – This question is debatable. Some studies say yes, while other can counter-argue that statement. The article states that women have lower perceived competences that can affect their online behavior. They also state that men have higher internet skills than women and this could be because of socioeconomics in general. Meaning that historically, men have had access and drive to receive a higher education, while women do not. Again, it is debatable. Young people have grown up with technology and they do not know life without it, but it is nothing that other older people cannot grasp onto.

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  16. Evan Rose says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    In Chinn and Fairline’s paper they correlate that, “per capita comes in as a powerful determinant of PC use; each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita” (27). They also state that the relationship between per capita income and computer penetration rates are because when per capita increase budget constraints relax and liquidity constraints (27). So, in nations and regions where per capita is higher they will have more computer and internet usage and availability.
    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Regulations within a region play a large part in creating or easing gaps in technology use. Within the Europe/Central Asia region regulations can be the cause of 11.7% of the gap in technology between those regions and the United States and when you compare other regions besides the Europe and Central Asia regions the gap is within the range of 18.2 to 32% (39). According to Chinn and Fairlie, “Differences in regulatory quality generally account for large portions of the gaps in technology use. For instance, 32.0% of the US-Middle East/North Africa Internet gap is associated with the difference in regulatory quality” (41). It is through these numbers and the analysis that Chinn and airline present in the paper that regulation play an overall negate effect on internet usage and thus can be translated across the technology usage.
    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    The statement “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear” make this claim by claiming that although the digital divide diminishes overtime, the ways and the utilization of technology becomes more apparent between technological exposed regions and non-technological exposed regions (1096). So as technology becomes more and more available to peoples, the new inequalities between people in regards to technology become in their ability to use, utilize and leverage technology. An example of this could be the gap in technology skills between older generations and younger generations. Younger peoples are more traditionally versed in social media and emerging technology. Another example could be in regional differences in technology. Here in the United States we use a stand assortment of technology and software that is not standardized in the same way in other regions and countries. This could cause disparage in ability and utility of technology between these regions based upon the quality and capabilities of available technological means.
    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?
    The data seems to suggest that men and younger people have higher level of digital skills. In the Correa paper the authors write, “As the Internet matures, research on the digital divide has moved from differences between connected and disconnected people to pay attention to different aspects of the digital inclusion process, including skills and differentiated usage of the Web” (1096). The authors go on to call this difference the second level digital divide or the usage gap. The information on the question that “Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?” presented that based upon the pure data the hypothesis seems to be true in terms of males who out performed females on the examination, however young people were not uniform in their digital skill level (1100-1101). Subjects who were ages 18-24 scored an average 2.93 on the study’s measure of digital skills and those ages 25-29 scored an average of 3.07 (1101). So, while younger peoples might have higher digital skill levels, there is a moving range of average digital skills such as online skills or operational skills based upon age.

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  17. Austin Lumpkin says:

    Study 1

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    “Unsurprisingly income per capita comes in as a powerful determinant” (27). This quote from the article is stressing that income per capita is a major factor in the global gap in internet and computer use. This is due to the fact that a less fortunate region simply won’t be able to afford computers/Internet because they use their money for other things. Also the institution of education relates to this because if the area cannot afford computers and technology like this then the students involved will contribute to the digital divide. In conclusion, income per capita is a key determinant for specific groups of people in regard to access to technologies like computers and even electronics in general.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    According to the text, regulation plays a more interesting and complex role than income per capita does. The text states, “Interestingly, the negative effect of regulations on Internet penetration (i.e. positive coefficient estimate on regulatory quality) is substantially larger than its effect on computer penetration” (30). This essentially means that regulation affects internet use more than computer use. Regulations should be more universal in order for specific groups to close in on the global gap in computer and Internet use.

    Study 2

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    I interpret this statement in the sense that there can be progress in terms of these digital inequalities but just because there is progress, doesn’t mean that the inequalities go away. What comes to mind is a scenario such as a person gains access to the Internet through a computer tomorrow but they are still not as equipped in terms of general knowledge in comparison to a person who is up to date on these technologies. Also people who are not developing with the technological advancements as they develop are at a disadvantage in terms of where they can work, who they can reach in terms of communication, and will be generally less informed.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    The text states that men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills. However, I don’t necessarily like this statement for many reasons. I believe that the statement should be more about how younger people have higher levels of digital skills because that includes both genders. I also believe when it comes to digital skills there needs to be more of a focus closing the global digital divide instead of pondering if men or women have higher levels of these said skills.

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  18. Sunshine Codeluppi says:

    Study 1:

    How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    In the readings, we learned that computers are generally the same price across countries, but what causes the gap is the income of the individuals living in each specific area. A person’s income is one of the main reasons there is a digital divide today. Other countries are spending higher percentages of their salaries on technology than we do in the U.S. Due to the inability to purchase new types of technology, people of these populations are going to struggle to be knowledgeable and up to date with what technology has to offer.

    What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Regulatory quality plays an important role in different technology gaps. According to Chinn and Fairline, “regional differences in regulatory quality appear to contribute greatly to the global digital divide (p. 38).” Because other countries are not as advanced with technology, and do not have as good of a regulatory quality as we see in the U.S., it is hard to close these gaps. Regulation is negatively affecting the digital divide. If we saw more similar regulations across countries, there would be a better chance at closing any technology gaps we see globally.

    Study 2:

    “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear.” What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    In my opinion, I think this statement is trying to explain that there will always be digital inequalities. Even after time, as people progress and become more knowledgeable with certain forms of technology, there will always be a population of people who are already a step ahead. For example, countries that gain access to some technology forms and devices long after we do, are never going to be quite as advanced as those who have already had experience with them. I do agree with this statement, because it will be hard for lesser developed countries to catch up to those who have had the privilege of using these forms of technology their whole lives.

    Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?
    Young people are extremely digitally advanced nowadays. Kids are growing up with computers, cell phones, television, and other technology devices which puts them ahead without even choosing to be. In generations before us, children didn’t have the option to use cellphones and join social media until they were older. Whereas, now kids find it normal, and grow up to be very educated and have advanced digital skills. I believe that despite the popular belief of technology being more male dominate, women are advancing just as fast. In my opinion, both genders are at an equal standing when it comes to digital skills.

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  19. Benjamin Epling says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    There isn’t a strong correlation between having a high population density and having a greater computer and internet use. Income per capita is what sets the standard of how much people are able to interact with computers and use the internet. To explain income per captia you have to look at individuals standings in economic, social, and political issues. To obtain computers and have access to the internet one has to be able to afford to purchase those products. Without a high supply and demand the population won’t have the ability to obtain computers. The global gap in computer and internet use widens when one country’s citizens are educated and are able to afford a computer compared to a country’s citizens where they are in poverty and uneducated.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation plays an important role in how a population has access to computers and the internet. Regulation makes it harder for internet to penetrate countries because they have different regulatory quality. Without the access to the internet people are withheld knowledge and technology that would be more available if other countries that don’t have as many regulations.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    I think the statement “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear” means that the struggles that face people will evolve has time progresses. Digital inequalities do not disappear over time and will still effect the community involved. People don’t have the same opportunities has some of their peers which leaves them in a disadvantage. People face inequalities because they don’t have the same abilities to have access to the internet and the web. Information isn’t has available than people think because digital inequalities.

    b )Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills

    The readings did give mention that men and more educated young people do have higher levels of digital skills. I believe that gender doesn’t have much effect when dealing with digital skills. I think men and women now have the same ability to increase their level of skill in digital technology. Education level has to be one of the largest factors that play a role in one’s ability to understand and grow their digital skills. Having a proper education on how to use the internet both in a professional and personal manner will help them navigate the World Wide Web.

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  20. Robert Dotson says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and internet use?

    With per capita income is one of the largest contribution factors when it comes to the global gap in computer and internet use. There are some regions that have lower computer and internet use than the United States and those regions also have little access to the amount of information and understand of the technology. In those regions 50% of the gap does explains the differences in their income. So, per capita income explains why the global gap in computer and internet is use because of the of the people who have lower average income are unable to buy or to have any access to the right resources.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Yes, regulation play has a role in this. The differences in regulatory quality is around a 10 to 15% gap in computer and internet use in a lot of regions. Also, the comparison to them and the United States is about 4.7%. Regulation is caused in most countries because of the lack of technology adoption and the usages of computer and internet. There are place like the United States such as Europe and Central Asia who have regulatory quality and there are no limits or no experience such as a gap in technology use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case?

    I believe that this statement is trying to say that there are digital issues and it most of the come from digital inequality. To add on to that there has been a certain progress made for some regions but they will somehow always be a step behind the regions who have higher average does. Like for example people in third world countries has less access to smart cell phone unlike how we do in the United States. So, it very hard for them to have access things such social media or search engine such as google. Those people from third world can never have the access to finding something out as fast as we do in United States.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    That’s a question is really base of someone’s opinion and I feel everyone educated in high levels of digital skills. The reason I’m saying that is because you can be any age or gender and still want to learn about technology you will be willing to learn. I can also say that younger people like myself do have somewhat of advanced because we always had it but the older people will always find a way to catch up to by learning from use.

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  21. Kirsten Cupach says:

    Study 1 —

    A) According to the reading, “each $1,000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita.” In other words, the more money an individual makes, the more money their community, however large or small, makes. An individual’s income, then, is a primary factor responsible for the digital divide. When people make less money, they put the little money they do have towards more important things, such as housing or food, and computers and other ICTS become less important. The more money each individual makes in any given area, the per capita income, or average income, rises. Areas, such as developing countries, then, have very low per capita income. As a result, they fall into the unfavorable side of the digital divide.

    B) The reading states that to some degree, yes, regulation does, in fact, play a role in the digital divide, and several data from the reading underscores this claim. According to the reading, “Differences in regulatory quality generally account for large portions of the gaps in technology.”
    For example, “32 percent of the US-Middle East/North Africa Internet gap is associated with the difference in regulatory quality.” In other words, when a government imposes strict policies on Internet use or technology access, the demand for ICT equipment will be much lower than, say, here in the United States. The reading hypothesizes that if the Middle East, for example, had policies similar to the United States, the digital divide would significantly decrease.

    Study 2 –

    A) To me, that statement means that as long as technology continues to develop, in general, some sort of digital divide will exist. Furthermore, no matter the technology, as long as factors that contribute to the digital divide, such as income and gender, continue to exist, the digital divide will persist. I agree with the statement above. Just as people who fell on the unfavorable side of the digital divide in the 1920s didn’t have access to or could not afford a television, as technology continues to evolve, future generations of the same side of the digital divide will continue to receive the short end of the stick.

    B) The text states that yes, men and educated young people do tend to have higher levels of digital skills. This disproves the myth of the “digital natives.” Although younger people do tend to have sharper digital skills than older generations, outside factors, such as gender and education level, play a role. The fact that men and educated young people have higher levels of digital skills reflects larger issues such as sexism and access to education.

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  22. Adam Little says:

    Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area’s total income by its total population.

    Study 1

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    An individuals income, or even the community’s average income, perfectly explains why the global gap in computer and internet use exists. Money isn’t always a huge factor, for example in the ‘Transforming People’s Lives’ video, we saw that Kenya introduced cell phones at a far quicker rate than America. And most would agree that America is a much wealthier country than Kenya. But per capita income is directly related to the quality of computer and internet use, as well as the accessibility of decent computers and internet service. The reading talked about how communities with more educated workers had more computers per household. Why is this? Because people who have had higher education, are far more likely to have a better paying job, and live in a higher quality community. Those communities are filled with similar people of similar status, thus leading to more technology usage. Another factor that plays into this question of per capita and computer and internet usage is the price of technology, as well as the price of internet service. For low income areas fast internet is a luxury because not many people can afford to keep fast internet, or even buy quality computers.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    The reading suggests that regulation negatively impacts internet usage more than it effects computer. Regulation prevents rural countries from adopting newer technologies, leading to a lack of computer quality/circulation and internet usage. If we our regulation was of higher quality and spread out more equally, we would then be able to close the gap we currently face. The US only experiences a 4.7% gap, while countries in the middle east experience a 15 % gap.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    Like anything in life, the evolution process is inevitable. So it’s only natural that the digital inequalities of today will evolve to match the digital qualities of a more fortunate society (cough cough United States). Though these inequalities will evolve, getting to the same level and maintaining that level of quality remains the issue here. It’s easy to upgrade once it accessible to everybody, but there always has to be somebody who can’t or never will have that access. For example, kids in the United states have the best quality of access, so this allows them to evolve with the new technology. As for a kid in Iraq, he will have shitty access to even shittier technology, so when he does get introduced to an updated version, he will either fall behind or not have the opportunity to upgrade.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    As of now that statement is questionable, but the reading suggests that men and educated people certainly have had and still have a slight edge over their counterparts when it comes to levels of digital skills. That gap is certainly closing, especially in America. The reading suggests that gender doesn’t determine digital skills, but the percentage of males getting educated and getting involved in the digital process is a bit higher. Age is certainly a better tool to measure with. As you get older, technology just keeps getting younger (newer). It’s hard to keep up with new technology and still maintain your home life. As a child it was hard to understand why my parents couldn’t efficiently use a computer, but now i’m in their shoes. Constantly educating yourself and surrounding yourself in the technology world will determine your ability to maintain digital skills. The good thing about this subject is this type of information is always accessible as long as you have access to internet, and know how to use it of course.

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  23. Wendy Weyers says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:
    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Per capita income explains the global gap in computer and Internet use through supply and demand. If a country doesn’t have the means to import or build computers and Internet service then it would be much more expensive to give access to their citizens. If not enough people in the country wants computers and Internet then it would be even more expensive and if there are enough people then the country and firms can get more stock and not waste their expenses. If a country has more per capita income then the people will have more money to spend on computers and Internet and there would be more money for building infrastructure for Internet and for electric to run everything.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulatory quality does play a responsibility in gaps of technology use. Regulation controls how a country or institution uses computers and Internet. The article stated, “…Inefficiently implemented regulations, or regimes where expropriation is the norm, will reduce the expected return to investing in capital of all sorts, and hence reduce the derived demand for ICT equipment” 25. The article also states later.“ We find that the regulatory quality variable exhibits a high level of significance.” 29 The first statement shows that regulation is important in both supply and demand. If there is no regulation on products then it would be harder to keep up with demand or supply. The second statement says that regulatory quality, policy, property rights, and institutions are important to the gaps in technology use and the authors also say “the coefficient on regulatory quality declines in absolute value, but remains large, positive and statistically significant.” 30.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:
    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    I understand from this statement that even if certain digital inequalities such as owning a computer disappears there is still more different digital inequalities. As technology evolves there are more factors and variables to consider when it comes to inequality. There used to be inequalities about owning a mobile phone (to some this is still an issue) but now most people have a mobile phone but these people now need to upgrade to smart phones or tablets in order to be equal with technology. Globally the US is ahead with it’s usage of Internet and other forms of communication but other countries still have inequalities in these areas, but the US has more inequalities when it comes to what kind of social media is used and other variables. There are still divides in the US even though it seems like there isn’t because the divides within the country are not the same divides that other countries have.

    b) Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?

    According to the author, “…men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills” this is because young people grew up and learned how to use technology along with everything else they have to while they are young. There was little to no amount of time where young people didn’t have technology and so they grew up learning the skills needed to use technology and education causes them to continue learning how to use the emerging technology. I can see how men of all ages have a higher level of skill compared to women because technology is new and the divides between women and men in the workforce education still exist. I believe though that as time goes on and because young people of both genders have higher skills then this gap between men and women will disappear.

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  24. Chad Gerzeny says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    To start, the article mentions that each $1,000 increase in per capita income results “associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PC’s per capita.” This is pretty obviously stating that wealthier people tend purchase PC’s thus leading to greater access to the Internet as opposed to someone who’s making less money. A study done comparing the three-year average per capita income of the U.S., Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia suggests that the income gap is likely affecting computer penetration by way of the cost relative to income. People are not making a determination based on income, but rather cost.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation plays a huge role in the technological gap. According to the article, “regulatory quality” is the most important factor to determining the digital divide of the Internet. Government regulation in China, for instance, is limiting the websites Chinese citizens are allowed to access. Ai Weiwei, a provocative Chinese artist, has been harassed by police and essentially driven out of China because of his art and socio-political views posted to his Facebook account. Trying to search his name on Google in China will come up with no results, as the government has banned his name from the search engines.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    The article explains this notion by saying that, “having basic access is different from taking full advantage of the opportunities and content provided from the Web.” This is the case because as new technology continues to come out, people are given more and more access capabilities and freedoms to take full advantage of the technology. If we look at North Korea, where the citizens are completely censored from the rest of the World, more specifically the Western world, we see a great example of digital inequality. They have no knowledge of advances made in technology, they are censored from freedom of use of technology and instead fed government propaganda.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    The article mentions that evidence about gender and technological skills are mixed, while a few studies have found that gender is not related to web skills. A survey in Chile, however, among a sample of 18-29 year olds, did in fact conclude that men and more educated younger people have higher levels of digital skills. They did also reveal digital skills did not accurately reflect the frequency of Facebook use. It seems as though the digital community is drawn between the notions that gender has an affect digital skill. The idea of higher educated people having a greater ability to attain digital skills seems pretty logical. I would say it comes down to the amount of exposure people are given to the technology

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  25. Stefano Minale says:

    Study 1 (Chin & Fairline 2006):
    (a)How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    As predicted, income per capita is an important variable. “…income per capita comes in as a powerful determinant of PC use each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita”

    (b)What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation plays a key role in the way people use internet access. People in higher regulation countries have very strict guidelines on what you can use the internet for and if posting inappropriate content on social media pages it can result in crimes. I would say that difference in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology because people in different countries might not have same access as others and can’t navigate through different areas of technological sources.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016)
    Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    To evolve means to develop gradually from a simple state to something more complex. Digital inequalities would begin when the world began to become more reliant upon digital communication. As things progressed, the gap between those who understood, had access to, and were unafraid of a digital world became more real. As indicated in our readings, there are many reasons for the digital divide including wealth, regulatory factors, etc., One example would be seen in private schools that are funded by wealthy individuals where there are no limits to resources vs. an area that does not have the same sort of funding, and thus no access or limited access to resources.

    Do men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills?
    In the the text I found “that men and more educated young people had higher levels of skills, confirming the so-called ‘digital natives’ are not a monolithic group” (p.1095). People with higher levels of income are able to have higher levels of socioeconomic status and have higher digital skills. Educated young professionals going into the workforce today must have technological skills if they are pursuing and kind of job. People with higher education levels tend to have more technological skills because in today’s generation everything is done on computer. In correlation to have higher education status, income has to be provided so those with higher income have a higher technological status.

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  26. Vincent Romeo says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?

    Generally speaking income per capita is the single biggest determining factor when it comes to internet use and the global gap. Richer countries tend to have more personal computers per household. According to table 1,(concerning internet and computer penetration) the top 10 countries on the list are all pretty wealthy minus South Korea. Whilst on the other side of the spectrum the lowest adoption rates also come from countries that are far poorer.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?

    Regulation is definetly a detrimental factor when it comes to the adoption rates of the internet and personal computers. However, regulation is far more negatively impacting on internet penetration versus computer penetration. According to the text “32% of the US-Middle East/North Africa Internet gap is associated with the difference in regulatory
    quality”. This essentially means that up to 1/3 of the internet penetration gap between the US and North Africa/Middle East could be due to just regulation of the internet alone.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.

    When it comes to technology a curve of adoption will always be set in place in order to leave room for innovation and to progress forward in general. However because of this digital inequalities will always be a thing, because limited access to new tech will always be a thing as with any evolving market. This gap has been described as the “second level digital divide” or the “usage gap” within the text.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?

    According to the text yes they do. This is because firstly young people are considered digital natives in today’s age. Young people have grown up with this technology and therefore have become far more adept and flexible with its ever changing environment. Men are only more adept when concerning digital skills because according to the text “digital inequalities mirror structural social inequalities “(Helsper, 2012).

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  27. Joseph Weldon says:

    Study 1 (Chinn & Fairline 2006) Questions:

    a) How does per capita income explain the global gap in computer and Internet use?
    From the reading, “income per capita comes in as a powerful determinant of PC use; each $1000 increase in per capita income is associated with more than a one percentage point increase in the number of PCs per capita.” This of course relates to an increase in Internet use as well. An increase in income per capita gives the consumer a greater ability to purchase/use a PC (personal computer). Using the same logic, an increase in computers relates to an increase in Internet use.

    b) What role does regulation play? Are differences in regulatory quality responsible for gaps in technology use?
    Regulation plays a negative role. It does so by making it more difficult to access information technology in countries where freedom has restrictions. From the reading regional differences “in regulatory quality appear to contribute greatly to the global digital divide. These differences explain roughly 10% of the gap in computer penetration rates for most regions.” So yes, differences in regulatory quality are on of the factors directly responsible for gaps in technology use.

    Study 2 (Correa 2016) Questions:

    a) “Digital inequalities evolve, but do not disappear”. What do you understand by this statement? Why is this the case? Give examples.
    This statement to me means that digital inequality always will and has always existed in the world, but the level of technology will always continue advance. This is because, the nations that were able to advance faster than others in history will always advance technology faster than those who were a bit behind. This advancement in technology, money, power, etc. creates this continuous digital inequality. An example of this is how the U.S.A was able to advance quicker than some African countries. There will always exist digital inequality between the U.S.A and these countries, even as technology increases.

    b) Do men and more educated young people have higher levels of digital skills?
    From the reading an investigation that’s referred to “found that men and more educated young people had higher levels of digital skills.” I agree with the results of this investigation, because I’ve seen first hand how the older workforce struggles more than the younger workforce as well as those who have been more educated. This is especially true for the generation that grew and is growing up with technology. Most of them will have higher levels of digital skills than those who aren’t as used to technology.

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